The article is professionally consulted by Doctor Le Van Linh – Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology – International General Hospital Phu Quoc and Master, Doctor Tran Lam Khoa – Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology – National General Hospital International Central Park.

Watching: What is Placenta

Placental edema is a serious, life-threatening condition in which the fetus has an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the tissues around the heart, lungs, abdomen, or under the skin.

Placental edema is a condition in which the fetus has fluid accumulation in 2 or more body cavities or 1 cavity with skin edema, which can be caused by abnormalities such as: abnormalities of the heart, gastrointestinal tract, thoracic cavity, fetal blood transfusion. twin babies…

Placental edema has a relatively low incidence, occurring in 1/1000 births. If you’re pregnant and your baby is diagnosed with placental edema, your doctor may order early labor. However, even with treatment, more than half of infants with placental edema die shortly before or after birth.

2. Classification of placental edema

There are two types of placental edema: immune and non-immune. They depend on the cause of the placental edema.

Non-immune placental edema is the most common type. Eg:

Fetal bleeding Fetal with heart or lung defects Vascular malformations Tumors

Immune placental edema usually occurs when the blood types of the mother and the fetus are incompatible, also known as Rh factor incompatibility. If you are Rh negative and have an Rh positive baby, your immune system will attack your baby’s red blood cells. This causes anemia. This type of placental edema is uncommon today because Rh-negative women are often treated with Rh immunoglobulin to prevent this problem.

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3. Symptoms of placental edema

Pregnant women may experience the following symptoms if the fetus has placental edema:

Polyhydramnios (Thick placenta)

The fetus may also have an abnormally large spleen, heart, or liver, and the fluid surrounding the heart or lungs may be visible on ultrasound.

A baby born with placental edema may have the following symptoms:

Pale skin Bruising (edema), especially in the abdomen Unusually enlarged liver and spleen Difficulty breathing

4. Diagnosis of placental edema

Diagnosis of placental edema is usually made during fetal ultrasound. Your doctor may notice that your baby has placental edema during an ultrasound during a routine antenatal checkup. Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to take pictures directly inside the body. You may also have an ultrasound during your pregnancy if you notice your baby moving less often or you experience other pregnancy complications, such as high blood pressure.

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Fetal ultrasound: The best diagnosis of placental edema

Other diagnostic tests may be done to help determine the severity or cause of the condition. Consists of:

Fetal blood test

5. Is placental edema dangerous

?When being diagnosed with placental edema, the pregnant woman will be asked to terminate the pregnancy, because she cannot continue to nourish the fetus. Otherwise, the fetus may still die in the womb after a while. In case the baby is born, the baby often cannot live because of premature birth or comorbidities, besides the mother is prone to bleeding, hypertension, preeclampsia, eclampsia because the uterus is too large and must contain the placenta with the edematous fetus.

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Therefore, in cases where the fetus is diagnosed with placental edema, the mother must go to a medical facility with adequate emergency equipment to prevent dangerous complications that may occur.

6. Treatment of placental edema

Placental edema usually cannot be treated during pregnancy. In some cases, your doctor may give your baby a blood transfusion (intrauterine fetal blood transfusion) to help increase the chances that the baby will survive until birth.

In most cases, the doctor will induce labor early to give the baby the best chance of survival. This is done with medication that induces early labor or an emergency cesarean section.

Once the baby is born, treatment can include:

Using a needle to remove excess fluid from the space around the lungs, heart, or abdomen (thoracic cavity)Respiratory support with a ventilatorUsing medication to control heart failure

Using medicine in children to control heart failure

Use medications that help the kidneys get rid of excess fluid

For immune placental edema, your baby may be given a direct transfusion of red blood cells that match your baby’s blood type. If the fetus has placental edema due to another underlying condition, the baby will also be treated for that condition. For example, antibiotics are used to treat syphilis infections that are passed on by babies from their mothers. The prognosis of a fetus with placental edema depends on the condition, but even with treatment, the baby’s survival rate is still quite low. In fact, only about 20% of babies diagnosed with placental edema survive to the day of birth, and of those babies, only about half will survive birth.

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The risk of death is higher for fetuses diagnosed with placental edema very early (less than 24 weeks of age). or children with structural abnormalities, such as structural heart defects.

To prevent placental edema, pregnant women should not smoke, drink alcohol, and receive pre-pregnancy vaccinations such as influenza, measles and rubella vaccine. at reputable and highly specialized medical facilities.

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Placental edema is a disease that can be detected early in routine ultrasounds. Currently, International General Hospital is implementing a package Maternity service, helping pregnant women to feel secure in monitoring, periodic examination, early detection of fetal abnormalities (if any). ) and was taken care of during labor and delivery. With a team of highly qualified and experienced doctors wholeheartedly for the benefit of the patient’s health, will bring satisfaction to you!

Master, Doctor Tran Lam Khoa is trained and used to work in fetal medicine and prenatal diagnosis at Necker Hospital – Center for Prenatal Diagnosis – Large Fetal Intervention and Treatment Center most of France. This is also the place where difficult and complicated diseases are concentrated with the world’s leading professors in Fetal Medicine and Fetal Intervention. Currently, Doctor Khoa is working at Central Park International General Hospital, he will directly diagnose, treat, and intervene in fetuses to bring healthy babies and bring happiness to children. future parents.