Philosophy has long been one of the obsessions of many students, graduate students… because it is difficult to understand. In which, solving the basic problems of philosophy is the top requirement of understanding philosophy in general or a philosophical doctrine in particular. If you are still “ambiguous” with questions such as: what is the basic problem of philosophy? What are the basic problems of philosophy? How many sides does the basic problem of philosophy have?… Don’t worry, all your questions will be answered by Thesis 2S in the article below. Let’s refer!

What is the fundamental problem of philosophy


The concept of the fundamental problem of philosophy

The fundamental problems of philosophy are those surrounding the relationship between thought and existence, between matter and consciousness. The reason it is a fundamental problem is that solving it will determine the basis and premise for solving other philosophical problems. This has been demonstrated very clearly in the long and complex history of the development of philosophy.

Viewing: What is the fundamental problem of philosophy

How many facets does the fundamental problem of philosophy have?

The basic problem of philosophy consists of two aspects, namely:

The Basics of Philosophy

The first side – Ontology: Answering the question between consciousness and matter, which comes first, which comes after? And which determines which?

We can deal with the first aspect of the fundamental problem of philosophy in three ways:

Matter comes first, consciousness comes after, matter determines consciousness Consciousness comes first, matter comes after, consciousness determines matter Consciousness and matter exist independently of each other, do not determine each other

Although the first two solutions are opposite in content, the common point of these two solutions is that they both recognize one of the two main principles (consciousness or matter) as the source of the world. Solution one and two belong to monistic philosophy.

The monistic philosophy consists of two schools: the materialistic monism school and the idealistic monistic school of philosophy.

The third way posits that consciousness and matter exist independently of each other, that both elements (consciousness and matter) are the source of the world. This interpretation belongs to dualistic philosophy.

The second side – Epistemology: Is man capable of perceiving the world?

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The vast majority of idealist as well as materialist philosophers believe that man is capable of perceiving the world. However:

Materialist philosophers believe that humans have the ability to perceive the world. But because matter comes first, consciousness comes later, matter determines consciousness, so that perception is a reflection of the material world into the human brain. Some idealist philosophers also admit that man has the ability to perceive the world, but that perception is the self-perception of the mind, thinking. Some other idealistic philosophers according to “Agnosticism” deny the human ability to perceive the world.

Why is that the basic problem of philosophy

?The history of the struggle of philosophy is the history of the struggle between idealism and materialism. It can be said that it is the basic issues of philosophy that are considered “standards” to distinguish between these two philosophies.

In fact, the phenomena that we often encounter in life are only encapsulated in two categories: material phenomena (existing outside of our consciousness) or mental phenomena (existing within us). .

Philosophical theories are very diverse, but they also have to answer the questions of matter and consciousness, which comes first, which comes after, which determines which? How are matter and consciousness related? and take that as the theoretical starting point. The answers to these questions have a direct impact on other questions of philosophy. Therefore, the problem of the relationship between thought and existence or between consciousness and matter is considered a fundamental problem of philosophy.

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Presentation of the basics of philosophy

Theory idealism of the “fundamental problem of philosophy”

Idealism is a school of philosophy that derives from the view that the essence of the world is consciousness. Consciousness is the first and matter is the second, consciousness will determine matter. They have cognitive and social origins, one-sided consideration, one-sided absolutization, a certain characteristic in the cognitive process. At the same time, it is also associated with the interests of the class, the oppressive class exploiting the working people.

On the other hand, idealism and religion have a fairly close relationship with each other for coexistence and development. Idealism exists in two basic forms: subjective idealism and objective idealism. With subjective idealism, which acknowledges the first nature of human consciousness, it asserts that all things or phenomena are just a complex of individual sensations. The representative was George Beckli – a subjective idealist philosopher, an English priest.

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In his philosophy, there are a lot of mystical thoughts, in contrast to materialism and atheism. According to which he relied on the views of medieval nominalists to assert that matter cannot be. objective existence but only in separate, specific objects.

As for the philosophy of Berlin, he made a famous philosophical proposition “the object in the world around us is a complex of sensations”. Specifically, the table is not a tangible object, but because our eyes see it, it has colors, shapes…

The Basic Problem of Idealist Philosophy

Theoretical materialism of the “fundamental problem of philosophy”

Completely opposite to idealism, materialism is a school of philosophy that comes from the view that the essence of the world is matter. Matter is the first and consciousness is the second, matter precedes and determines consciousness. They have their roots in the development of science and practice, often associated with class interests as well as progressive forces in history.

Besides, it is also the process of summarizing the most general things to reflect the achievements and people achieved in different historical periods. It can be said that materialism is a form of realism with the notion that the only thing that can be considered to exist is matter. All things are composed of matter and all phenomena are the result of material interactions.

Since its birth until now, materialism has gone through three main stages: simple materialism, metaphysical materialism and dialectical materialism. In which materialism was born in ancient times in India, China and Greece. The second form is quite evident in the philosophers from the 15th – 18th centuries. Although it has the nature of inheriting the views of simple materialism, it is more developed than this period with many admirable achievements. It was not until the 40s of the nineteenth century that dialectical materialism was born, and Marx and Engels were the builders and Lenin perfected and supplemented.

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The basic problem of materialist philosophy

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The role of philosophy in social life

The role of philosophy in social life will be expressed through the functions of philosophy. In particular, philosophy has many different functions, but the most important is still the worldview and methodological function.

Worldview function

Worldview plays an important role in the life of each person, class or community. They help people realize the true nature of each thing and event. And especially human activities are often governed by a certain worldview.

When specifically guided by the scientific worldview, people will always determine the correct relationship between them and the object. From that basis, they can properly perceive the movement laws of the object, helping to clearly determine the direction, goal and mode of operation of each person.

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On the contrary, if a worldview is not guided by science, people will naturally not be able to determine what their desired goal is? How is the direction or how it works? As a result, the activities will not achieve the desired results.

methodological function

Methodology is a system of rules drawn from the laws of the objective world. This is also an extremely important basis for scientific research methods. Besides, perfecting the methodology also helps scientists to research and find new approaches to determine the right direction. Help upgrade and reform the world. Currently, the methodology is divided into three main levels:

Sectoral MethodologyGeneral MethodologyThe Most Generic Methodology

Above are a few shares revolving around the basic issues of philosophy that we want to share with readers. Hopefully, with this information, it has helped you somewhat better understand philosophy in general and the basic issues of philosophy in particular in order to complete exercises and essays on Philosophy in the most effective way. Thank you very much!