Hydrogen peroxide H2O2, also known under the familiar name Hydrogen peroxide, is a colorless, transparent, liquid solution with high oxidizing properties, widely used in manufacturing industries such as paper, textiles, and medical pharmaceuticals. economy, food processing, cleaning chemicals, waste treatment, industrial and domestic wastewater,… and especially in high concentrations like HTP, it is used as a propellant in rockets.
So is Hydrogen peroxide dangerous, how is it produced? Find out through the article below.
Viewing: What is Peroxide?
Schematic diagram of the molecular structure of Hydrogen peroxide H2O2
Table of contents
1. Physical and chemical characteristics of H2O22. Hydrogen peroxide production technology H2O2
1. Physical and chemical characteristics of H2O2
Other names Hydrogen dioxide, hydroperoxide State Solid, liquid, gas Molecular formula H2O2 Color Colorless, transparent Odor Strong odor Vapor pressure (mm HG) at standard pressure temperature 23 mmHg Vapor density (Air=1) at standard pressure temperature 1.1 Solubility in water Totally soluble PH Acidity (2.5 – 3.5) Density (kg/m3) 1.1 Boiling point (0C) 108°C Heat melting point (0C) 33°C Evaporation rate >1 Molecular gram 34.01g/mol Viscosity 1,245 cP at 20 °C
Hydrogen peroxide has a “skewed” shape, because the repulsion between the O-O single bonds is on the oxygen atom. The bond angle is influenced by hydrogen bonding, which gives the crystalline to vapor difference, in crystals with wide ranges.
The space between crystals of Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to water and oxygen, the reaction is exothermic according to the equation:
2 H2O2→ 2 H2O+ O2 + Heat
Decomposition is influenced by temperature, concentration of peroxide, pH, and the presence of stabilizers or impurities. The reaction requires a catalyst such as manganese dioxide, potassium permanganganate, silver or the enzyme catalase. The decomposition is faster in the alkaline catalyst and the stabilizer when it is in the acid.
In the presence of a catalyst such as Fe2+ or Ti3+, the decomposition produces a mixture of H2O2 and Fe2+ or Ti3+ known as the Fenton reagent.
1.2. Oxidation-reduction reaction
Hydrogen peroxide in water can be oxidized-reduced many inorganic ions to oxygen gas. Fe2+ in acidic solution is oxidized to Fe3+
2Fe2+ + H2O2 + 2H+ → 2Fe3+ + 2H2O2
In alkaline environment, Mn2+ is oxidized to Mn4+ (MnO2), Fe3+ is reduced to Fe2+
2Fe3+ + H2O2 + 2OH- → 2Fe2+ + 2H2O + O2
Hydrogen peroxide converts Fe2+ to Fe3+
Hydrogen peroxide is used as a reducing agent in organic chemistry
Ph-S-CH3 + H2O2 → Ph-S(O)-CH3 + H2O (TiCl3 catalyst)
Hydrogen peroxide is used to epoxidize alkenes such as acrylic acid or oxidize alkylborans to alcohols.
1.3. Formation of peroxide compounds
Hydrogen peroxide is a weak acid (pH = 4.5). It can form hydroperoxides, peroxides or derivatives of many metals or form peroxoanions by anionic reaction.
Na2B4O7 + 4H2O2 + 2NaOH → 2Na2B2O7(OH)4 + H2O
Hydrogen peroxide oxidizes carboxylic acids RCOOH to peroxy acids RCOOH. Reacts with acetone to form acetone peroxide. Reacts with ozone to form hydrogen trioxide. Reacts with urea to produce carbamide peroxides to whiten teeth.
1.4. Calculating bases
Hydrogen peroxide is a weak base, even weaker than water, but when reacted with very strong acids can form a number of products.
2. Hydrogen peroxide production technology H2O2
Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 can be produced by electrolysis of sulfuric acid, ammonium bisulfate NH4HSO4 or Barium peroxide. However, these two methods require a lot of electricity and fuel, and their cost is quite high, so they are rarely used in industry.
In the world, the method of hydrogen production by oxidation technology Anthraquinol AO using palladium catalyst is widely applied. This method can be used in two ways
2.1. Fluidized bed catalytic hydrogenation method
The disadvantage of this method is that the equipment used is quite complicated, requires a lot of energy to operate and especially this process can lead to the possibility of explosion. Many cases have occurred at several factories in the UK, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.
2.2. Fixed-stage catalytic hydrogenation method
Regarding the reaction mechanism, both the fixed and fluidized bed catalysis methods are the same, but the problem of fire and explosion does not occur when the plants use the fixed stage.
Process of producing Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 by the method of Palladium-catalyzed Anthraquinol on a fixed layer
2.3. Hydrogenation stage
The raw material is a mixture of solutions including Anthraquinone, most people use 2- Ethyl Anthraquinone as a carrier, heavy aromatics, the solvent used to support the reaction is Tri-izo octyl phosphate TOP. These substances are prepared in certain proportions, aromatic compounds must be distilled first under vacuum conditions. This mixture is then washed with demineralized water and treated with H2O2 to remove impurities, preparing for the Hydrogenation phase.
All of the above materials will be put into the tower Hydrogenation together with hydrogen. The process uses temperature, pressure, and palladium as a catalyst. Anthraquinone will react with hydrogen to form the corresponding anthraquinol. At the end of the process, the solution mixture is transferred to the oxidation tower.
2.4. Oxidation stage
After being transferred to the oxidation tower, anthraquinol will combine with oxygen, creating Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 and anthraquinone will be converted back.
The solution mixture, after leaving the oxidation tower, will be transferred to the extraction and purification stage to get the necessary products.
2.5. Extraction and purification stage
The H2O2 present in the solution mixture, after leaving the oxidation tower, will be transferred to the disc-hole extraction tower and extracted with demineralized water according to the following procedure:
After exiting the oxidation tower, the solution is put into the bottom of the extraction tower, the top of the tower will be where the demineralized water enters, opposite to H2O2. Because H2O2 is completely soluble in water, it will be completely dissolved in the demineralized water before going out of the extraction tower at the bottom in the direction of the reduction water flow. The H2O2 solution continues to be brought to the filter tower to separate impurities. Initial carrier such as heavy aromatics, TOP… to obtain 27.5% H2O2 concentration. The solution mixture after extraction of all H2O2 goes to the bottom of the tower to be treated with alkaline solution, which is transferred from the top of the tower to separate the water before removing the water. return to the hydrogenation process. The lye solution at the end of the process is sent to the separator to separate impurities and then concentrate for reuse.
2.6. Hydrogen peroxide solution concentration stage
Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 concentration of 27.5% is formed and can be consumed directly in the market. If a higher concentration of product is desired, further treatment is required through a process of concentration: The dilute Hydrogen peroxide solution in the container is passed through a pump, filtered, heated, and then transferred to the evaporator. buffer tower type. Water and Hydrogen peroxide do not have the same boiling point, so it will separate water and H2O2 with the necessary concentrations such as 30%, 50%, 70%. The whole process takes place under vacuum conditions.
Hydrogen peroxide production plant in Vietnam
In addition, Hydrogen peroxide is also produced from 2-ethyl-9, 10-dihydroxyanthanracen to 2-etylanthraquinone through auto-oxidation, and Hydrogen peroxide uses oxygen from the air. The anthraquinone derivative is then removed from the mixture and reduced back to the dihydroxy compound by hydrogen gas.
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3. Real life application of Hydrogen peroxide
3.1. Chemicals to disinfect and disinfect swimming pools
Hydrogen peroxide concentration 35%-50% under the influence of UV rays forms strong oxidizing radicals capable of disinfecting and disinfecting water with high efficiency, contributing to the neutralization of chlorine while the cost is low and moderate. safe and economical. Therefore, Hydrogen peroxide is chosen by many individuals, households, and pool owners to treat water in the lake.
The pool water is disinfected by Hydrogen peroxide
3.2. Applications in the home
Dissolve 3% hydrogen peroxide with water in a ratio of 1:1 and then gargle. Regular use will help remove yellow stains on teeth, teeth gradually whiter. The solution bought at the pharmacy is not allowed to drink because it contains toxic chemicals but can be used to clean blood stains from clothes, carpets, etc. Cotton swab and then lightly dab on the acne site to help antibacterial, treat acne.
Treat acne on the face
Spray a diluted 5% lower concentration of hydrogen peroxide solution on hair after washing to preserve color strength and increase shine. Hydrogen peroxide is less than 3% concentration, it is used to disinfect wounds, remove The hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide will produce oxygen gas to help enhance the growth of plant roots, treat damaged and waterlogged roots, so it is very popular with gardeners and aquarists.
3.3. Industrial applications
Production of sodium percarbonate, sodium perborate in washing powder.Production of organic peroxide compounds such as dibenzoyl peroxide used as free radical primers in polymerization reactions.Epoxide production, preparation of acetic acid.As propellants for animals Small propulsion in some satellites, making it easier for the spacecraft to adjust and safe when it wants to load and store fuel before landing.
Create thrust to launch rockets
3.4. In medical
Some people believe that hydrogen peroxide is diluted by 35% and used in superoxidation therapy to treat cancer, AIDS. Some medical practitioners use intravenous injections of hydrogen peroxide at concentrations lower than 1% to treat cancer, but according to the American Cancer Society, “there is no scientific evidence that hydrogen peroxide is safe.” .
Disinfect wounds with Hydrogen peroxide
5. How dangerous is hydrogen peroxide
Skin contact will cause burning, dry, cracked skin and if left for a long time can cause ulcers. In liquid or mist form can lead to tissue damage, especially mucous membranes of eyes, mouth, irritation. inhalation. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide (>50%) is corrosive. If swallowed, hydrogen peroxide solution will cause decomposition in the stomach, releasing a large amount of gas (10 times the volume of a 3% solution) leading to internal bleeding. Contact with eyes will cause burning. , eyes are red, blistered, even blurred vision. High concentration hydrogen peroxide vapor paralyzes the central nervous system, causing phenomena such as dizziness, lightheadedness, headache, vomiting, affecting ability to function. body control. Even if inhaled for a long time can lead to coma and death. Inhaling Hydrogen peroxide vapor will seriously damage the lungs, causing coughing, suffocation, difficulty breathing, chest pain. The nasal mucosa may burn temporarily.
Hydrogen peroxide is a dangerous substance
Hydrogen peroxide vapor can detonate above 70°C or come into contact with hydrocarbons such as grease, alcohols, ketones, acetic acid, amines and phosphorus. .If hydrogen peroxide is poured into the fabric (or other flammable substances) it will evaporate the water until the concentration reaches a high enough level, then the material will automatically ignite.
6. Troubleshooting measures with Hydrogen peroxide
6.1 In case of skin contact
Immediately remove the clothes you are wearing, use clean water can add soap if there are many times to wash the exposed skin.
6.2 In case of eye contact
If you are wearing contact lenses, remove them immediately if possible, then rinse your eyes with clean water several times for at least 15 minutes and then take them to the nearest medical facility for further care.
6.3 In case of inhalation exposure
Move victim to fresh air. If you can’t recover, you should immediately go to the nearest medical facility. During the procedure, it is necessary to keep the victim in a position where he can breathe easily.
6.4 Cases of contact with the gastrointestinal tract
Do not try to force the victim to vomit and call 911 immediately. If the victim vomits, keep the head lower than the hips to avoid re-breathing the toxic fumes.
6.5 In case of fire, explosion
Wear protective clothing and oxygen respirators.Use fireproof foam, spray water or mist, dry powder, carbon dioxide, sand or earth for minor fires but not water. Evacuate unrelated persons from the area. hazardous area. Water-cool adjacent containers, remove easily avoidable materials to a safe place.
6.6 In case of chemical leakage
Immediately remove contaminated equipment to avoid contact with them. Isolate the area where the leak occurred, and do not allow unauthorized persons or persons not wearing protective clothing to enter the area. .Stand at the windward end and in high, open positions. Remove all potentially explosive objects around the hazardous area, preventing the possibility of this product spreading into the ducting system. water by coating with soil or sand or potentially absorbent substances and then safely discarding them.Use forewarned safety methods against static charge.Inform local authorities. if not handling all the leaked chemicals to have the best, quick and timely solutions.
7. How to store and store safely
Hydrogen peroxide decomposes when exposed to light, so the storage area must be protected from direct sunlight. Containers must be tightly covered, and stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area. Good ventilation. Hydrogen peroxide is not flammable but if exposed to nitric acid. Therefore do not store with this substance.Do not store containers with metal containers, do not dry. Clear safety labels should be on the ropes, bottles, jars, keep out of reach of children.
Hydrogen peroxide vials must be carefully labeled
8. riclix.com – Where to buy genuine Hydrogen peroxide in Hanoi
riclix.com has been established and operated for nearly 20 years in the import and distribution market of leading industrial chemicals in Vietnam, receiving the trust of a large number of customers throughout the country from schools to middle schools. laboratory, research institute.
riclix.com – The company specializes in providing all kinds of industrial chemicals
The products are imported from famous brands in the world such as Duran-Germany, Kartell-Italy,…with many models and types, convenient for the diverse needs of customers.
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With a system of more than 50 specialized pickup trucks and a team of responsible delivery staff, the products will be delivered to customers at the scheduled time.
In particular, customers can easily find out product information and order products without having to go directly to riclix.com’s agents or stores by accessing the website riclix.com
If you are looking to buy quality Hydrogen peroxide products, come to riclix.com or contact HOTLINE 1900 2820 for the earliest advice and quotation. favorable