What is compensator? How is the compensating capacitor structure? Which type of capacitor is good? How to connect and install the correct capacitor? What is the use of the capacitor? Why install capacitors? how to calculate capacitor capacity? Are compensating capacitors saving electricity? Buy any good, reasonable capacitors with correct specifications that need to be replaced…

Those are the questions that anyone who is planning to buy, sell or use capacitors is wondering. Do you want to be answered and guided to choose the best cheap quality and discount capacitors on the market? current market. We are an Electrical Appliance Dealer who will answer and troubleshoot to help you choose the right product while still optimizing costs.

Watching: What is Compensator

What is compensator?

Capacitor is a system of two conductors placed close to each other and separated by an insulating layer (dielectric), the capacitor has the effect of charging and discharging electricity in an electrical circuit.

The quantity that characterizes the capacity of a compensating capacitor to charge at a certain voltage is called the capacitance of the compensating capacitor. It is determined by the quotient between the charge of the capacitor and the potential difference between its plates (C=Q/U). In the power system, capacitors are used for the purpose of compensating reactive power to improve power factor cosφ (cos phi) in order to ensure grid performance and avoid fines according to industry regulations. Electricity. Therefore, installing a capacitor will reduce a significant amount of monthly electricity bill (decreased by several tens of % depending on the unit). Compensating capacitors are the main components in the reactive power compensation switchboard beside other devices to ensure the intelligent, stable and safe operation of the compensating system such as: Capacitor controller, switchgear, protection protection, harmonic filter reactors, measuring equipment, displays, etc. In practice, capacitors are often called as capacitors, capacitors for power, capacitors for reactive power, capacitors for compensating cos phi

Capacitor Construction

Usually a special type of oil-immersed paper capacitor, consisting of two poles consisting of long aluminum foils insulated by layers of paper. The whole is fixed in a sealed vessel, the two ends of the plate are brought out.

Classification of capacitors, the best type of capacitor

Classified by structure, classified by voltage. Classification by structure: Capacitor dry compensation and Capacitor oil. The dry compensator is a long round tank. The advantage is compact, light weight, easy to install and replace, and takes up little space in the electrical cabinet. The cost is usually lower than the oil capacitor. Dry capacitors are often used for small capacity compensation systems, with relatively good power quality. The popular dry capacitors on the Vietnamese market have 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30kVAr compensation capacities. Some brands have small type 2.5, 5kVAr and large type 40, 50kVAr. 3 phase low voltage capacitors, dry type capacitors Oil compensators are rectangular (square or round sides). The advantage is higher durability. Oil capacitors are commonly used for all compensation systems. Especially for large capacity compensation systems, bad power quality, harmonics (used in combination with harmonic filter reactors). The popular oil compensating capacitors on the Vietnamese market have 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50kVAr compensating capacity ranges. 3-phase low voltage capacitors, oil capacitors Classified by voltage:

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Single-phase low-voltage capacitors, 3-phase low-voltage capacitors. Single-phase low-voltage compensation capacitors: There are voltages of 230V, 250V. 3-phase low-voltage capacitors: There are voltages of 230, 380, 400, 415, 440, 525, 660, 690, 720, 1100V. The most common are 2 types of voltage 415V and 440V. 415V capacitors are often used in relatively stable voltage systems at 380V standard voltage. Capacitor 440V is often used in systems with higher voltage than standard voltage, systems with harmonics need to be fitted with a reactor that filters harmonics.

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Top best compensating capacitors today: samwha and Nuintek

Does capacitors save electricity

Installing capacitors is the solution to reduce reactive power. Making sure cosφ is always higher than 0.9 will not be penalized. In practice cosφ is usually set at 0.95. Depending on each power user, when installing a capacitor, you can save several tens of % of your monthly electricity bill because you will not be fined cosφ. Installing capacitors not only saves electricity because there is no penalty, but also reduces losses on the line, saving a part of the initial investment cost for the electrical system such as conductors, protective switchgear, transformers. pressure…

How to install power saving capacitor

For small production facilities: Features:

The total power consumption is low, only a few tens of kW. The equipment generates small harmonics, so there is no need to filter harmonics. Reactive power is low. In this case, the monthly fine is only a few hundred thousand dong. If the installation cost of the capacitor bank is too high, although it saves electricity, it does not bring economic benefits. Solution for installing power-saving capacitors: For the need to compensate for low reactive power to save costs, just use the static compensation method (ground compensation). The capacitor bank has a very simple structure, is compact and has the lowest material cost. Equipment includes: – Cabinet size 500x350x200mm (reference parameters). – 01 Aptomat to protect capacitors and to switch off capacitors manually. Can be combined with Time Relay to automatically switch off the capacitor according to the working time of the day. – 01 small capacity capacitors 2.5, 5, 10kVAr. Capacitor installation cost Compensating for electricity savings is only about a few million dong, which can save hundreds of thousands of monthly electricity bills.

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For the average production facility: Features: – The total power consumption is about a few hundred kW. – Devices that generate small harmonics do not need to filter harmonics. – Reactive power is in the range of several tens to several hundred kVAr. Fines can range from a few million dong to more than ten million dong monthly. Solution to install power-saving capacitors: In this case, it is not possible to use the static (fixed) compensation method for a regular amount of capacity, but it is necessary to divide into many levels of capacitors. There are 2 ways: manual compensation (manual switching and switching of capacitor levels) and automatic compensation (using automatic capacitor control). Manual switching of capacitor levels is incorrect and untimely because the operator relies on meter observation or experience to make a decision. This method is very laborious to operate. In fact, there are still a few units that choose this way to reduce equipment investment costs, but this is not the way to apply. Automatic compensation is the mainstream method currently used by most units. The advantage is that the controller automatically measures and calculates the amount of power to be compensated to decide how many levels of compensation capacitors should be switched on and off. In addition, the controller has a switching mode that alternates the levels of the capacitors, prioritizing the closing of the rarely used capacitors to balance the use time of the capacitors and switching devices, which will prolong the life of the device. Automatic controllers have many types from 4 levels to 14 levels. For the average system usually divided from 4 levels to 10 levels. The standard automatic capacitor bank system includes: – Cabinet height 1m – 1.2m. – Automatic compensating capacitor controller. – Aptomat total protection. – Aptomat branch protects each level of capacitors. – The compensating capacitor switching contactor is connected to the controller. – Capacitor. – Auxiliary equipment: Volt meter, Ampere, phase indicator light, etc. Condenser cabinets to save electricity

For large production facilities: Features: – The total capacity of large equipment ranges from several hundred to thousands of kW. – Usually has its own substation. – There may be harmonic generators that need harmonic filtering to protect capacitors. Solutions to install power-saving capacitors: Using a multi-level automatic compensation system consisting of large capacity capacitors. If in the system there are many devices generating large harmonics, it is necessary to install harmonic filter reactors to protect the compensating capacitors from causing explosion.

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Formula for calculating capacitor capacity

To choose a capacitor for a certain load, we need to know the power P of that load and the power factor Cosφ (cos phi) of that load: Suppose we have the capacity of the load P. The power factor of the load is Cosφ1 → φ1 → tgφ1 (before compensation, cosφ1 is small and tgφ1 is large). The power factor after compensation is Cosφ2 → φ2 → tgφ2 (after compensation, cosφ2 is large and tgφ2 is small). The reactive power to be compensated is Qb = P*(tgφ1 – tgφ2). For example, we have a load capacity of P = 100 (kW). The power factor before compensation is cosφ1 = 0.75 → tgφ1 = 0.88. The power factor after compensation is Cosφ2 = 0.95 → tgφ2 = 0.33. So the reactive power to be compensated is Qb = P*(tgφ1 – tgφ2). Qb = 100*(0.88 – 0.33) = 55 (kVAr).

How to check capacitor capacity

Use a KYORITSU or FLUKE multimeter to measure the capacitor capacity: Short-circuit 2 phases, measure the remaining phase with 2 shorted phases, the reading is divided in half to get the 1-phase capacity listed on the label. Continue the remaining pole pairs in turn to get 3-phase capacity. Normally, companies will have the following parameters? Then the focus is µF. Advantages are accurate Cons of having a dedicated meter

Checking capacitors with a clamp meter We can test capacitors indirectly by measuring the current when the capacitor is in operation. This is an indirect measurement that is quite accurate and easy to perform. The condition for highly reliable measurement is to measure when the voltage is within the allowable range. From the operating current, we compare it with the rated current to evaluate the quality of the capacitor. Normally, when the capacitor is used for a long time, this current is gradually reduced. – Simple advantage

How to choose capacitor

Choosing which type of capacitor to bring the best efficiency to the system and save costs is a concern of many customers. This is a very important question in the design problem of the reactive power compensation system. In order to choose the right type of capacitor, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of the electrical system of each unit and then decide to choose: 1. Which voltage is suitable: Capacitor 415V, 440V,,…? 2. Dry capacitor or oil capacitor? 3. The best capacitor manufacturer today