Ovarian cysts are sacs that form on the surface of a woman’s ovaries during or after ovulation to hold a mature egg. Most of these ovarian cysts are harmless and cause no symptoms, and usually go away without treatment. But if the ovarian cyst is large, it can cause twisting, rupture or bleeding, causing pain for the patient.

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Ovarian cysts or functional ovarian cysts will normally disappear after ovulation, however if the egg is not released or the sac closes after the egg is released, the sac may swell to contain fluid.

Ovarian cysts are caused by one or more small changes in the way the ovaries produce or release eggs. During the menstrual cycle, ovarian cysts can develop due to:

When a follicle in an ovary fails to release an egg and swells with fluid inside the ovary or on the surface of the follicle. A cyst occurs when the corpus luteum does not go away but continues to bulge with fluid inside. This is the most common type of ovarian cyst. The development of functional ovarian cysts is also common during treatment with clomiphene (such as Clomid or Serophene) in infertility cases. These cysts should go away after treatment ends, although it may take several months. They pose no danger to pregnancy. Some functional ovarian cysts may be a benign cyst or be related to endometriosis or cancer.

2. Symptoms of functional ovarian cysts

Frequent urination, if a large cyst is pressing on the bladder

Functional ovarian cysts are usually harmless, cause no symptoms, and go away without treatment in 1 to 2 months or 1 to 2 menstrual periods. Therefore, ovarian cysts are often discovered during routine health check-ups or other medical examinations.

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If the ovarian function cyst is larger, the symptoms will begin to appear, such as:

Frequent urination, if a large cyst is pressing on the bladder. Abdominal pain. Menstrual changes. Weight gain.

More serious symptoms may develop if the cyst twists, bleeds, or ruptures. See your doctor right away if you have any of the following symptoms of pain, shock, or bleeding:

Sudden severe abdominal or pelvic pain Nausea and vomitingSudden feeling dizzy, weak Vaginal bleeding or symptoms of shock due to heavy bleeding.

There are many other causes of signs or symptoms of ovarian cysts, which is why it’s important to get checked out early if you have any unusual pelvic symptoms.

3. Who is at risk for ovarian cysts

? Factors that may increase the risk of developing ovarian cysts include:

Previous history of functional ovarian cyst. Recent use of clomiphene, such as Clomid or Serophene.

Use of low-dose progestin-only contraceptives may be a risk factor for developing functional ovarian cysts.

4. Tests to diagnose functional ovarian cysts

If an ultrasound shows you have an ovarian cyst that is filled with fluid but isn’t causing severe pain, your doctor may suggest waiting and watching for a while. The patient can then check the cyst 1 to 2 months later to see if the size has changed. Most cysts will go away in 1 to 2 months without treatment or after 1 or 2 menstrual periods.

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Your doctor will recommend further testing or treatment if:

The initial ultrasound did not reveal which type of cyst or both ovaries were affected. The ovarian function tumor did not get smaller or disappeared as expected. The patient has risk factors for ovarian cancer, For example, someone in the family has cancer or a genetic change. The higher the risk of ovarian cancer, the more tests a person needs to have to find the cause of the ovarian cyst. Laparoscopy allows the doctor to look at the ovaries through a lighted instrument and take a sample of the ovaries. cyst for biopsy. After examining the sample, your doctor may decide to surgically remove the cyst or the entire ovary with laparoscopy.

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CA-125 (cancer antigen) test is only recommended for women who are at very high risk for ovarian cancer.

5. Treatment of functional ovarian tumor

Most cysts are harmless, cause no symptoms, and go away without treatment. When treatment is needed, treatment goals include:

Relieve painful symptoms or reduce pressure on the pelvis. Prevent more cysts from growing by preventing ovulation. Treatment with oral contraceptives to prevent ovulation.

5.1 Initial treatment

Because ovarian cysts often go away without treatment, your doctor may recommend a period of observation without treatment to see if the cyst goes away on its own. The doctor will make an appointment for a follow-up visit after 1 to 2 months.

If myoma does not go away, the doctor will do more tests to make sure your symptoms are not caused by another type of ovarian cyst. Patients can use pain relievers at home to help relieve uncomfortable symptoms during this time.

5.2 Continuous treatment

If the cyst does not go away, appears abnormal on ultrasound, or causes symptoms, you may need medical treatment or surgery.

Your doctor may suggest that you try birth control pills for a few months to prevent more cysts from forming.

Laparoscopic resection of the cyst may be necessary if an ovarian cyst is painful and does not go away despite medical treatment. If the cyst looks abnormal on ultrasound or if you have other risk factors for ovarian cancer, your doctor may recommend laparotomy instead of using a laparoscopy.

Laparoscopic surgery and other types of surgery should generally be performed in reputable hospitals to minimize the possibility of possible complications. Vinmec International General Hospital gathers a team of skilled doctors and nurses from all over the country and abroad; The equipment system is invested heavily, meeting international standards, thus ensuring the best possible surgery.

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