Surely everyone knows alloy is a very important material in life, but what is an alloy? How to distinguish the types of alloy, let’s explore the details right here:

What is an alloy

?Alloy is a substance made by melting two or more elements together, after cooling they will form a kind of crystalline substance with a compound shape. solids or solid solutions. You cannot separate an alloy by normal physical means. They are homogenous and maintain the properties of the component metals, in which both metals and nonmetals can be combined.

Viewing: What is an alloy?

It can be said that a compound is a solid solution with a combination of many metals or between metals and non-metals. Alloys will have metal properties such as thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, durability, ease of deformation, metallic luster, …. More specifically an alloy is a mixture of elements at least one of which is a metal. Alloys are mostly solid, their compositions containing two elements are called binary alloys, alloys containing three elements are called ternary alloys.

Why do alloys exist? Because the quality improvement of single metal is better when the metal monolayers are bonded together. When metals are combined, the product alloy will have the qualities of the component metals and are called alloy capitalizes.

How to distinguish different types of alloys today:

Alloys are divided into two types:

Simple alloys: formed between two metals (such as lattice: Cu and Zn) or between metal and nonmetal (such as steel, cast iron: Fe and C) but the main element of the simple alloy is still metal. Alloys of iron are also known as ferrous alloys: with the main composition of iron with other minor elements. Non-ferrous alloys are mixtures of non-ferrous metals other than iron: among these are brass, aluminum alloy, western gold, etc. Ceramic alloys also known as powder alloys: mixtures of tungsten carbide compounds combined with cobalt (Co), sometimes with the addition of titanium carbide Complex alloys: Alloys whose composition contains two or more major elements are metals with two or more other minor elements. There are advantages: complex alloy mechanical properties suitable for mechanical engineering materials, appropriate technology, much lower cost. Complex alloys are easier to fabricate because they do not have to remove impurities as thoroughly as metals or simple alloys.

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Iron alloy

Alloys of iron have the main element in which is iron combined with other chemical elements. Alloys of iron are created to overcome the disadvantages of iron metal. Iron alloys are used to create building materials, or items with different properties to serve people’s daily lives.

Cast iron: This is an alloy of iron when combined with Carbon, in which carbon accounts for 2 to 5% of the total weight of iron alloy. Cast iron is divided into 2 types, white cast iron and gray cast iron. Steel: Has the same composition as cast iron, but in addition, the composition also contains silicon or manganese, etc., in which steel accounts for only 0.01 to 2% of the alloy weight. . Also divided into 2 types, normal steel and special steel.

Copper alloy

Latton (golden bronze or brass): is an alloy of copper in which the two main elements are copper and zinc. The minor elements also have other elements such as Pb, Ni, Sn, etc. They are divided into simple laton (with only Cu and Zn components) and complex laton (which will include other elements Pb, Al). , Sn, Ni…)

Brang (copper): An alloy of copper with other elements (without Zn). The distinction between different types of copper varies depending on the sub-element included: for example, Cu – Sn is called tin bristles, and Cu – Al is called aluminum bron.

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Aluminum alloy

Aluminum alloy is an alloy with the main element Al with other materials (such as copper, tin, manganese, silicon, magnesium, …). Aluminum alloy appears in many applications in life, products such as bottles, jars, aluminum jars or equipment for the production of cars, airplanes, spacecraft, etc. all use aluminum alloy. is divided into:

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Deformed aluminum alloy

According to the properties that this aluminum alloy has: the deformed aluminum alloy can be stable by heat treatment, and the deformed aluminum alloy cannot be stable by heat treatment. This aluminum alloy has the following common applications: commercial products, bottles, jars, aluminum pots, etc.

Cast aluminum alloy

As aluminum alloys with Silicon composition (from 5 to 20%) and with the addition of Magnesium (from 0.3 to 0.5%) to form a stable compound phase Mg2Si, Al-Si-Mg systems must through the stabilization method. Then, add Copper (3 – 5%) to the previous Al – Si – Mg system to improve the mechanical properties and good castability of this compound. Therefore, this compound is widely used in combustion engines, pistons, etc.

Aluminum alloy

Zinc alloy

Alloys can also form if the alloying agent or agent has atoms much smaller than the parent metals, in which case the agent atoms slip between the primary metal atoms. thereby creating an alternating alloy. Steel is an example of an interstitial alloy, in which a small number of carbon atoms slide in huge interatomic gaps in an iron lattice.

Titanium alloy

The addition of different elements such as Al, Mo, V, Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Cu Fe has formed titanium alloys with different properties and applications.

Alloys containing 6% aluminum, 4% vanadium are the most commonly used of all titanium alloys. It accounts for more than 50% of all titanium used worldwide combined.

An alloy containing 5% aluminum, 2.5% tin, or an alloy containing 3.0% aluminum, 2.5% vanadium. Currently in the world there are more than 35 different types of alloys. Depending on their characteristics, they are applied in different fields.

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Easy methods of testing metals and alloys

Hardness Test

Different materials have different hardness. Therefore, to evaluate the hardness of alloys and metals, hardness measurement methods are used such as: Rocvel hardness method, Brinen hardness measurement method, Vicke hardness measurement method.

Bump test

To test the toughness of alloys and metals by impacting on an impact tester with the force of a hammer high enough to destroy the metal specimen.

Try to pull:

In order to determine the tensile strength of metals and alloys, a sample of the material must first be made, and then the sample will be clamped on a mechanical or hydraulically driven universal compressor. When pulling the sample on the machine, the machine will draw a graph of the relationship between the tensile force and the deformation of the sample, thereby getting an accurate chart. Depending on the nature of the material, whether it is a metal or an alloy, there is a corresponding chart.

Today’s Alloys

Alloys have a broader meaning today than they did when they first appeared. In the past, industrial materials containing a few elements were made mainly by smelting. Nowadays, many alloy materials are obtained by other methods such as by powder metallurgy, by diffusion pathway method; Alloys can also be obtained by plasma dusting during crystallization from the vapor phase in vacuum, by electrolysis of metals.

Like metals, alloys have a crystalline structure and are usually composed of crystals such as: mixed crystals, solid solution crystals, and chemical crystals.

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Through the article What is an alloy? The way to distinguish the types of alloys today, you must have had a clearer view of the types of alloys as well as how to distinguish them.