Although Ho Chi Minh did not have any works dealing specifically with people, in Ho Chi Minh’s thought system, the human issue has a special position and is regarded as a sacred and high goal. the whole of the revolutionary cause, it permeated and remained constant throughout his entire life of activity, it was shined in every act, gesture, act of kindness, respect and concern for each and every person and every person. people.
President Ho Chi Minh visited farmers of Hung Son Cooperative (Dai Tu district, Thai Nguyen province), 1954. Photo: document
The goal of independence, nation, and socialism that Ho Chi Minh determined for the Vietnamese revolution was to liberate the nation, liberate society to liberate people. Man is both the subject of the revolution and the highest goal of the revolution, the red thread that runs through his entire revolutionary life.
Ho Chi Minh has absorbed the fine tradition of the nation, people must love themselves and others as well. “Love others as if you love yourself”, “People in a country must love each other”, “Gau Oi love and get together / Although they are different from each other, they share the same truss”, together they share the same passion and suffering, one heart and one heart, solidarity in society, living with nature… in their lives.
Ho Chi Minh came to Marxism – Leninism, absorbed Marx’s ideas about man and human nature thoroughly. C. Marx pointed out: “Man is not an abstract creature, hiding somewhere outside the world, man is the world of man, the State, and society”(1). When talking about human nature, Marx gave a famous definition: “In its reality, human nature is the sum total of social relations”. In this thesis, C. Marx criticized L. Feuerbach, who considered human beings as abstract and isolated individuals and human nature as just “the inherent abstraction of separate individuals” or “the essence of nature.” human nature can only be understood as “species”, the intrinsic universality, which is purely naturally bound together by a multitude of individuals”. As for the man at the head of the State, whom Hegel calls a “special man”, its essence, as C. Marx analyzed, is also “not its beard, not its blood, no not its abstract physical nature, but its social quality”. Thus, human nature is not abstract but concrete, not natural but historical, inherent not in each separate, isolated individual but in the sum total of all relationships. public relationship. If we separate humans from social relations, we will no longer be humans, but only a species of herd, not a human society.
When it is said that man is the sum total of relationships, in those social relations, the relations of production play a dominant role in determining other social relations, because it determines the person belongs to him. different castes. When we say that people in a society have classes, we must talk about its class character. Social relations include many types. If we consider the relationship between individuals and society, or between individuals and the social community, there are family relationships, clan relations, village relations, class relations, and ethnic-country relations. – Fatherland, human relations. In terms of the nature of social relations, there are production relations and other relations, such as political relations, moral relations, religious relations, etc. Thus, social relations are very diverse and always knit. interleaved with each other. Ho Chi Minh did not underestimate the relations of production, but did not absoluteize the relations of production, considering the relations of production as the only relation constituting human nature. Many people have wrong perception on this issue, which has led to the deviations that consider human nature to be only class nature, to identify human nature with class nature, no longer to be the sum of all views. social system as C. Marx pointed out. These deviations have resulted in either class ambiguity or rigidity in the proletariat position.
In human matters, what Ho Chi Minh is most interested in is the Vietnamese people and social relations in Vietnamese society. the good traditions of the nation, the ideas and views of Marxism-Leninism about people. His views on man and human nature are both rooted in reality, and he offers a very original but very practical view of the main human being. He defines human: “The word human, in the narrow sense, means family, relatives, relatives, friends, in the broad sense means compatriots of the whole country, and broadly, the whole human race” (4). Thus, humans are not isolated individuals like Robinson on a deserted island. Only in social relations, in practical social activities, can people have labor, language, thinking, manufacturing tools, and truly become human beings. distinguish it from all other animals. The social relations that Ho Chi Minh is interested in are those that stick with people, with the community, forming social communities from small to large, from narrow to wide, family communities, clan families. Villages, villages, and ethnic groups have formed a sustainable community built up in the long history of nation building and defense. Since then, traditional patriotism and genuine nationalism have been formed, which Ho Chi Minh considered as “the great driving force”, “the only driving force, promoting the development of the country”.
Secondly, according to Ho Chi Minh, if people want to survive, they must have food, clothing, shelter, travel… But human life does not stop at only material things, but also spiritual and cultural needs. are human characteristics. Whether all those material and spiritual needs are met or not, completely depends on the social regime, on the socio-economic form in which people live. He said: “Everybody needs to have food and clothing…” because these are essential things for survival. He still remembers and often repeats “The people live in heaven” (people take food as heaven, if there is no food, there is no heaven). There is also a saying that “with the truth, you can only gain the way” (without eating, you can’t do anything). From that, we see that the concern of the people’s food, clothing and shelter has always been at the forefront of Ho Chi Minh’s concern.
For the Communist Party of Vietnam, the only force leading the Vietnamese revolution, leading the people, leading the country…, Ho Chi Minh emphasized responsibility for the people’s lives. Those are the things that need to be done immediately “1- Make people have food, 2- Make people clothed, 3- Make people have a place to live, 4- Make people educated, the goal we are going for. those 4 things. Go to make our people worthy of freedom and independence and help them to be free and independent” (5). He advised: “The policy of the Party and the Government is to take great care of the people’s lives”. If the people are hungry, the people are cold, and the people are ignorant, the Party is at fault. Responsibility for the people’s life completely depends on the social system, on the social leadership class.
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Social relationships are not necessarily constant, so human nature also changes along with changes in social relations. The metaphysical idealist view holds that: “The essence or nature of man is immutable”. C. Marx rejected: “All history is only the continuous transformation of human nature”, so it is necessary to study “how that nature changes in each certain historical epoch”.
In human matters, Ho Chi Minh absorbed the national tradition, absorbed Marxism-Leninism, but on practical basis and applied it creatively, rather than stereotyped clothes and machines. From the specific point of view of Marxism-Leninism, Ho Chi Minh saw the class division in Vietnamese society unlike Western society. In the “Report on Tonkin, Trung Ky, Cochinchina” sent to the communist international in 1924, he made his observations: “In Vietnam, even the so-called great landowners are names. dwarfed by those in Europe and America”, “the life of landowners is nothing short of luxurious”, and the Vietnamese bourgeoisie are “just well-off profiteers”, not “rich men”, “billionaires”, there are exploiters of wage labor but also “moderate in their greed”, there are “emperors who reign but do not care to rule” and cannot be compared with feudal lords in Europe okay. Therefore, he pointed out that it is “indisputable” that “their conflicts of interest are minimized” and that “the class struggle does not take place like in the West” means “no decision is made”. as in the West”.
From Ho Chi Minh’s point of view, among the exploiting classes in Vietnam, there are only a few who are committed to being henchmen for the imperialists, only a few are traitors to the nation and the country, but the majority still see the shame of losing the country of Vietnamese people. The historical and cultural traditions of the nation have been forged, creating a cultural spirit hidden within all Vietnamese people, regardless of class. So if when awakening the national spirit in them, they still sided with the nation to face the colonial imperialists. Since then, he soon introduced the policy of dividing the class of landlords into urban, middle, and small landowners; differentiated the bourgeoisie into national bourgeoisie, commercial bourgeoisie, regardless of class, ethnicity, religion, rich or poor, rich or poor. The great national unity has attracted all social strata, including mandarins of the old regime, intellectuals, priests, nobles, land tycoons, and creators… In the historical process Vietnam, this is one of the victories of Ho Chi Minh Thought, which rejected the dogmatic attributions about class and class struggle by the communist international and those who participated in the leadership of the Party. in 1930, argued that Nguyen Ai Quoc had moved away from the position of the proletariat and fall into the nationalist stance, the bourgeois nationalist stance. That victory proved that Ho Chi Minh had correctly solved the ethnic-class relationship in a creative way, not only in revolutionary ways, but also in terms of people and Vietnamese people with historical conditions. its specific history. Affirming that nationalism is the driving force of national development and human liberation.
Understood the Marxist-Leninist viewpoint on the role of man, Ho Chi Minh soon affirmed that the cause of national liberation, social liberation and human liberation is the cause of the incompetent class. property, of the working people and of the whole nation, with the spirit of “must use our strength to liberate us”. Ho Chi Minh saw the strength of the proletariat, the working people and the Vietnamese nation not only in what was revealed, but also in what was hidden within those great forces. He deeply believes that when the proletariat, the working people of the colonial nations in the world wake up, organize and fight in the right way, the strength will become invincible and will definitely win. victory in the national independence revolution and socialist construction. Ho Chi Minh has come to the conclusion that a nation, even if it is small, will not be annexed and assimilated by a nation dozens of times larger if it can promote human strength, spiritual and ideological qualities. and culture. For the Vietnamese people, the people make history, the people are the subject of history, a concrete and vivid truth that was consolidated and enhanced by Ho Chi Minh into a philosophy of life. This philosophy of life has been promoted and proven eloquently in the modern history of the nation. Having to cope with two big empires, while our forces are weak in many aspects, but Ho Chi Minh firmly believes that our people under the leadership of the Party will turn a little into a lot, a small into a big, a weak into a strong one. create both position and power to win.
Ho Chi Minh’s faith in the people is due to being deeply imbued with the national historical tradition about the quality of the Vietnamese people: “Our people have a passionate patriotism. It is our precious traditions. From the past until now, every time the Fatherland was invaded, that spirit would get excited, it would form a huge and powerful wave, it would pass through all the dangers and difficulties, it would engulf all the people. both selling water and stealing water” (6). Among the factors that ensure the victory of the Vietnamese revolution, according to Ho Chi Minh, the leading factor is the revolutionary force, the masses of people, workers, farmers, intellectuals… organized into a block. unify and become a powerful revolutionary force to build a good society. In August 1961, speaking to the Conference on fostering leaders at all levels in the North in order to thoroughly grasp the Resolution of the 3rd National Party Congress, he made an important point and affirmed: “Want to To build socialism, first of all, socialist people are needed”. For us, this thesis has become the classic thesis when building socialism, there must be socialist people. The new socialist man is a fully developed man. Building socialism is the longest, most complex, profound and radical revolution in all economic, political and cultural fields… so it requires the new socialist people to be qualified human beings. quality, intellectual capacity, morality, health, enlightenment of communist ideals, determination to renovate the old society and build a new society – socialism.
On the basis of cultural awareness, intelligence is a huge motivation for a person as well as for all nations. Without culture and intelligence, people cannot promote their qualities and abilities effectively, based on perception and action according to objective laws. Therefore, during his life as a leader of the Vietnamese revolution, Ho Chi Minh always considered education and training a basic strategy. Today, absorbing Ho Chi Minh’s teachings, our Party and State affirm: Education and training is the first national policy.
In the process of renewing the entire country, the importance of the human factor in the direction of socialism is shown in all fields on the path of industrialization and modernization of the country and international integration. At the VI Party Congress and the VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI Congresses, there were resolutions on the above-mentioned issue. At the 12th Party Congress, the Party continued to emphasize: “To attract and strongly promote all resources and develop the people’s creativity. Take care of improving material and spiritual life, well solve urgent problems, strengthen management, develop society, ensure social security, human security, ensure social security, improve social welfare and reduce poverty sustainably. Promoting the people’s mastery, bringing into play the strength of the great unity of the whole nation”, “Promoting the human factor in all areas of social life, focusing on building people in terms of morality and personality”. , lifestyle, intelligence and working capacity, building a healthy cultural environment” (Resolution of the 4th Conference of the 12th Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam).
(1) C. Marx and Ph. Engels: Complete Volume, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi 1995, T3; (p. 569).