Author: Military Medical AcademySpecialization: Psychiatrist Publisher: People’s Army Publication Year: 2007 Status: Waiting for reviewAccess rights: Community



Watching: What is Activity

Operation concept:

Concept of Philosophy: activity is the dialectical relationship of the subject with the object, including:

The process of objectification: the subject transfers his characteristics into the object.

The process of subjectivizing the object: the subject absorbs the characteristics of the object into his own capacity.

The concept of Physiology: activity is the consumption of human nerve and muscle energy when it affects objective reality.

Psychology: activity is a way of human existence by influencing objects and creating products to satisfy the needs (directly/indirectly) of self and society.

Activity is the expression of a person’s relationship with the surrounding environment.

Activities are always aimed at satisfying certain needs.

Types of activities: In terms of individuals, they can be divided into types of activities:




In terms of products, it can be divided into:

Practical activities: creating physical products; called external activity.

Reasoning activities: creating mental products; Also called inner workings.

The first type of activity affects things in order to change things.

The second type of operation does not transform the object at the object.

Other division:

Transformational activity: the typical form is labor. However, transformation activities also include social change:

Social and political activities.

Management activities (social, economic, scientific, etc.).

Human transformation.

Cognitive activity: is a form of mental activity that does not change real objects and real relationships. It only reflects things and relationships by symbols, concepts, images… Cognitive activity is both at the level of practical experience, even at the level of scientific reasoning.

Value-oriented activity: is a form of mental activity, determining the meaning of reality for oneself.

Structure of the activity:

According to Marxist psychologists, it is possible to analyze activity into its constituent components.

Figure 6.1: Structure of the activity.

Every human activity is motivated by one or more motives. The unit of activity is action. Action to achieve a certain goal. In a particular situation, the action is performed by a series of manipulations. The end result is the product of the action.

For example, student learning is motivated by professional (and possibly other personal) motives. Learning activities are broken down into actions to achieve each specific goal on the way to the final destination. However, it should also be noted that the structure of the operation is very flexible. Distinguishing, for example, motive from purpose is only relative.

Types of human needs:

A need is a necessary, objective requirement, a need for something that needs to be satisfied. It is all human activities to satisfy a certain need, so human needs, grouped together in a certain system, act as the driving force for all activities.

Human needs are very diverse. However, they can also be divided into two main groups: biological (natural) needs and social (social) needs. Or it can also be divided into physical needs and spiritual needs.

Biological/Physiological Needs: These are the needs needed to maintain the existence of the human body. For example: the need for food, drink, sex.

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Material Needs: These are physical needs.

Spiritual needs: very diverse and rich. These are the ethical, aesthetic, cognitive and communication needs, labor needs as well as social activities.

Maslow, an American psychologist classified human needs into 5 levels:

Figure 6.2: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

It is equally important that when considering human actions/behaviors, it is necessary to consider what motives those actions/activities are motivated by. In other words, it is necessary to pay attention to the field of motivation – the needs of each person.

Skills, techniques and habits:

Automated actions: are actions that are initially strongly controlled by the conscious mind, then become automatic after repeated many times. The role of conscious control over automatic action is minimal, and this work is mainly reserved for the unconscious. During the execution, if something goes wrong, the consciousness takes control and directs the action.

Skills and techniques: Skill is the ability to apply knowledge into practice. When a skill that is practiced regularly becomes automatic, then it becomes a technique.

Habits: are actions that have been automated and become human needs. For example, the habit of washing hands before eating.


Some concepts:

Man: a natural entity (mammals) and a social entity (subject of individual and social activities). Man is a new creation of history.

Personal: represent human, any human that exists in each community.

Personality: each individual is different in terms of body type, neurological type as well as personality, needs, emotions… Individual characteristics are revealed in relationships, in life in their own way. distinctive, not overlapping with anyone is called personality. Personality expresses the individual identity of each person.

+ Personality: is a combination of characteristics, psychological attributes of each individual, expressing the identity and social values ​​of that person.

In Vietnamese: human – person, way – manner, way, way. Personality: that’s the way, the way of being human.

Personality: new psychological structure, self-regulating, complex structure


Structure of personality: Structure by type, type:

Classification based on dominant temperament:

Temperament personality type: this is the personality of a person with a strong, unbalanced nervous type, excitement is stronger than inhibition. They are quick to change moods, love and hate clearly, outspoken, straightforward, quick to anger, attentive to big things. They are people who are easy to take initiative but less persistent at work.

Calm Personality Type: The neurotic type of this personality type is strong, balanced, and inflexible. Their relationships are not extensive, forming slowly but durable. In their work they are slow but sure, able to do the work persistently.

Enthusiastic, vibrant personality type: this is the corresponding personality type with strong, balanced, flexible nervous type. People with this personality type are enthusiastic at work, easy to adapt to new situations, wide relationships. However, their feelings are often not deep, easy to start work but also easy to withdraw.

Anxiety personality type: The neural basis of this personality type is weak, inhibition is stronger than excitement. They are sensitive, delicate, emotional people, decisions are often based on emotions. The relationship is narrow but deep and durable. However, they are often difficult to adapt to new things, shy and less assertive.

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Classification based on dominant behavior pattern:

Currently, in many clinical psychology documents, it is mentioned how to classify personality based on the outstanding behavior pattern of Friedman A. and Roseman:

Type A personality has 3 outstanding characteristics:

Fast in action.

Clearly interested in the profession.

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Have a competitive spirit.

These people often have a higher rate of coronary artery disease (ranging from 30% to 70% depending on the study) than the general rate.

Type B personality has outstanding characteristics:

There is a withdrawal attitude in action.

Often change of mind.

Type A: Enthusiastic, highly competitive; Type B: vice versa.

Introvert and extrovert personality type:

Typical extroverts: are open-minded, communicative, have many friends and acquaintances. They act under momentary influence, are impulsive, indifferent, optimistic, fond of movement and action. Their feelings and emotions are not strictly controlled.

Introverts are typically calm, timid, introspective, or reserved, with little contact and communication with everyone, except close friends. They tend to want to make plans of action. Do not like excitement, do daily work with a serious spirit, like order and order. Strictly control your emotions, don’t let go easily.

Three-block structure: The Self – The Self, the Super Self:

Personality, according to Freud, consists of 3 parts, 3 small “persons”: It (Id); the “Ego” and the Super Ego.

The It: this is a man of instinct, demanding to satisfy all needs and must be satisfied immediately. For example, when hungry, this human instinct prompts the body to take actions to satisfy hunger. In the composition of the It is only the unconscious.

Ego – the person of reality: cannot satisfy the need at all costs but must take into account the actual situation. The part of the ego personality conducts activities against the ego by gaining control over desires, deciding whether those demands can be satisfied or not? Should it be postponed to another time or completely eliminated? Freud compared the Self to a horse, which likes to run in any direction as it pleases. However, someone needs to control that horse. The Ego plays the role of the horseman to control the horse Itself.

In its composition, the I contains mainly consciousness. The unconscious also exists, but accounts for a small percentage.

Super ego – social person: people live in society and need to express themselves according to the moral, legal, and social requirements. There is also hunger, there is also food, but it has been taught that there are “dishes that are humiliating”. To a certain extent, Super Self is also known as the ideal person because it is the part that always pushes people to perfection.

Element structure:

Many researchers believe that in each personality there are different factors, different composition. However, the number of factors given is not the same.

Personality consists of 4 main groups of attributes. This model is being mentioned a lot in the textbooks National psychology program:

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Trend: it is a system of motivations, motivating purposes, determining the choice of attitude and positiveness of people. Trends include a system of needs, interests, beliefs, worldviews, and ideals that interact and are closely related.

Personality: a system of human attitudes and behaviors towards people around, towards society and towards themselves.

Temperament: talk about dynamics (intensity, tempo..) of individual psychological phenomena.

Competence: system of capabilities that guarantee the results of activities.

Personality consists of two main factors: introversion, extroversion and neurotic stability. These two factors combine to create a personality type. This two-factor model is essentially compatible with the temperament-based model.

Personality consists of 16 elements. This is the model proposed by Cattell on the basis of practical research.

5-factor model: this is the model that is being used today. The five factors include:

Nervous stability: anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsivity, vulnerability.

Extraversion: friendly, sociable, assertive, active, seeking stimulation, positive emotions.

Openness to knowledge: imagination, taste, sensitivity, action, ideas, values.

Pleasure: sincere, straightforward, selfless, submissive, humble, kind.

Consciousness: competence, order, responsibility, effort to achieve, self-discipline, prudence.

The structure of two sides of virtue:

This is the traditional model in the country, psychologists have summarized:

Virtue (Quality) Talent (Capacity) Social/ethical-political qualities Worldview, beliefs, ideals, stances, political attitudes, working attitudes… Socialization capacity: ability adaptability, mobility, flexibility, flexibility in social life. Personal qualities/ethical character: traits, habits, interests (desires) Subjectivization capacity: the ability to show originality, uniqueness, and to express the individual’s own. Will qualities: discipline, self-control, purposefulness, criticality… Action capacity: ability to act with purpose, initiative, and positivity. Behavior: manners, etiquette… Communication capacity: ability to establish and maintain relationships…

Pathways of personality formation

Human personality is not born but is formed. In the process of personality formation, education, activities, communication and collective play a decisive role and create the most basic paths.


Education plays a key role in the development of personality.

Education: the totality of direct and indirect pedagogical effects, in the school, at home and in society. In a narrow sense, education is often understood as the process of influencing the young generation in terms of thought, morality and behavior.

Education outlines the direction for the formation and development of personality.

Education can bring things that innate factors – genetics or the natural environment cannot provide: learning, vocational training…

Education makes up for the shortfalls caused by illness.

Education can shape and correct bad psychological qualities.

Education can be ahead of reality.


Psychology is formed and expressed in activities: through activity and by activity, the subject performs a dual process – entering the mind and leaving the mind. Through activities and through activities people perceive as well as communicate socio-historical experiences.


Communication is a condition for people to perform activities together, in order to comprehend socio-historical experiences.

Communication is the way for mankind to carry out social genetics. Thanks to communication, people can perceive the world, perceive themselves.

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All human communication takes place in groups. Organizations and group activities are conditions for the formation of human personality.