The article was professionally consulted by Specialist Doctor II Do Dang Duan – Ophthalmologist – Department of Medical Examination & Internal Medicine – Vinmec Hai Phong International General Hospital. Dr. Duan has over 20 years of experience in the field of ophthalmology. The doctor is highly trained in eye diseases such as low blood pressure, retinal detachment, retro-ophthalmic injection.
Watching: What is nearsightedness?
Refractive errors in general and myopia in particular are the leading causes of vision loss in the world today. This visual disturbance can get worse over time. In addition to causing impaired vision, myopia can change the structure of the eye, putting patients at risk for future eye disease. People with myopia should know how to distinguish different forms of myopia in order to have appropriate treatment.
Myopia is one of the most common refractive errors, people with myopia can often only see objects that are close, but have difficulty seeing objects far away. Because the observed image is focused in front of the retina, when nearsighted people look at distant objects, they often have to squint.
With nearsightedness, the patient will have difficulty seeing distant objects. Other signs and symptoms of nearsightedness include:
Blurry vision when looking at distant objects; Frequent squinting; Headache from eye strain; Difficulty seeing at night.
Usually myopia can be detected early in school age (school myopia or congenital myopia). In particular, the signs to recognize myopia in children are as follows:
When watching TV, children have to get close to see them; When reading, they often jump or have to use their fingers to trace the words when reading; In class, children have to get close to the board to see them; When they write, many letters are wrong. Missing or needing to copy your work; Bends over to look at books; Squints or tilts head when looking at distant objects; Rubs eyes even though the child is not sleepy; Often complains of eyestrain, headache or watery eyes; Fear of light or being dazzled, not liking activities that have to look far away….
3.1. Simple Myopia (Simple Myopia)
This is the most common type of myopia, usually seen in school-age children, between 10 and 18 years of age. People with simple myopia usually have a myopia of less than 6 diopters and are often accompanied by astigmatism. The cause of myopia is simply due to the eyes often working at close distances, working-study places with lack of light or low light intensity. Simple myopia is often caused by working conditions and genetics. The disease tends to develop over a period of time and stop to a certain extent.
3.2. Induced Myopia Or Acquired Myopia
Causes include nuclear sclerosis, a side effect of certain prescription medications, high blood sugar (diabetes), and a number of other causes.
3.3. Pseudo Myopia (Pseudo Myopia)
Occurs when the eyes increase accommodation, the ciliary bodies in charge of correcting the eye’s ability to accommodate constrict, causing a temporary impairment of distance vision. Symptoms of false myopia are the same as normal myopia, but the eyes will recover after a period of rest.
3.4. Degenerative Myopia Or Pathological Myopia
This is the most severe type of myopia, patients often have myopia of more than 6 diopters accompanied by retinal degeneration of the posterior hemisphere of the eyeball. When suffering from degenerative myopia, the eyeball axis is continuously lengthened, causing the degree of myopia to continuously increase, the condition of myopia is getting worse and worse. The disease will be even more dangerous if not treated in time, causing diseases such as retinal degeneration, retinal detachment, glaucoma… seriously affecting eye health. However, this disease is quite rare and often develops at an early age, so parents should regularly take their children to a reputable eye hospital to promptly detect school myopia and treat it.
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Myopia can be cured with eye surgery. However, children under the age of 18 are not old enough to have refractive surgery. Therefore, the most optimal treatment for nearsightedness is to wear glasses or orth-k glasses (night contact lenses). For children with myopia, parents need to take their children for regular eye exams (3-6 months / 1 month). times) to check the progress of myopia, change glasses in time to help children see better. Failure to periodically change glasses will cause a child’s eyesight to decrease, wearing the wrong glasses will cause the eyes to adjust more, and myopia will increase faster.
Some of the current treatments for nearsightedness include:
4.1. Wear glasses
This is the most common, least expensive solution to correct nearsightedness. People with myopia often use diverging lenses. However, framed glasses will bring inconvenience to users such as: less able to participate in strong sports activities, blurred vision when it rains. In addition, this is only a temporary solution, does not treat completely and can only be used for a certain time, must replace new glasses when myopia increases.
4.2. Wear contact lenses
Soft contact lenses are also the solution that many people choose. The advantage of contact lenses is high aesthetics, the disadvantage is that you may be allergic to contact lenses if your eyes are sensitive, your eyes are prone to dryness. In addition, contact lenses that are not cleaned properly can cause inflammation eye infection. Patients have to change glasses when they expire and the cost of each replacement is relatively high.
4.3. Temporary corneal correction by Ortho K
This method is used to correct myopia for people who are not old enough for surgery (under 18 years old) or who do not want surgery. Ortho K is a nighttime contact lens, temporarily eliminating myopia by the ability to correct the cornea. However, when stopping use, the cornea will gradually return to its original curved state, not completely correcting myopia refractive error. In addition, this method also has the disadvantages of being less effective with severe myopia, only having a temporary effect, the price of Ortho K glasses is expensive and there is still the possibility of eye infection.
4.4. Refractive surgery
The advantage is that it has good effect, high safety, short postoperative recovery time and can thoroughly treat refractive errors. However, the cost of surgery is still high and many people are still afraid to move “cutlery” in the eye area.
4.5. Phakic surgery
This method is also called intraocular lens placement, usually applied to patients with high myopia but not eligible for refractive surgery. The downsides are the risk of glaucoma, the potential for inflammation, and the longer recovery time than with refractive surgery.
4.6. Vitreous replacement surgery
The last method in the treatment of this refractive error is only indicated when the patient has too high myopia and cannot be operated on by other methods.
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Eye treatment and surgery with high quality, intensive ophthalmic techniques bring efficiency and peace of mind to customers.
The Ophthalmology Department of the Inter-Specialist Department – Vinmec Times City International General Hospital is a medical sub-discipline specializing in the eyes and eye-related diseases. The department has a comprehensive vision and eye health care function for children, adults and the elderly, including refractive error testing, general examination, diagnostic ultrasound, laser treatment and surgery. In addition, Ophthalmology is responsible for coordinating with other clinical departments in the treatment of pathological complications and eye injuries caused by accidents.
The team of ophthalmologists – Vinmec Times City International Hospital is experienced, has performed many types of surgery from routine to difficult surgery, especially techniques that require aesthetics. With enthusiasm and love for the profession, the team of doctors working at Vinmec Times City always gives customers the best services with the highest service quality. The list of doctors with expertise in Ophthalmology here includes:
The staff team gathers experienced experts in ophthalmology examination, consultation, treatment, and surgery