Sea freight is an integral part of logistics, for beginners to learn about import and export, it will be difficult to imagine the specific work when doing export and import sea goods to pay attention to what. What’s the difference between FCL full container and LCL retail? Join to find out more about the sea freight process in a real-life analysis of goods and services to know what the set of shipping documents includes.

Viewing: What is Sea freight?

Sea cargo is sea transport, accounting for a large proportion in logistics transportation. There are 2 types of transport that need attention: FCL full container cargo and composite cargo – LCL container shortage. For starters, you need to know clearly about the subjects involved in the handler of a shipment, so that later, when you check the documents, you will know where and who is missing. The parties involved in the transport are very important when making export goods.

I. Entities Participating When Exporting By Sea

Basic to export 1 shipment, participants include

Shipper/ Consingnee – Seller – Buyer Transporting goods Transport company – FWD company – Coloader Authorities: Customs, functional inspectors for certification and inspection of related fields. Beneficiary bank records, Bank guarantee…

Sea cargo handling tools, even if going to LCL/FLC, all need: Container, ship’s name, you can check the ship’s schedule at: About the container you must understand the parameters:

Need to know about how to read the parameters of the containerCalculate the weight of the packed goodsPacking the goods into the container Each type of container is used for what purpose…

Sea exports have the participation of many logistics service parties

II. The process of making goods by sea is often used in the transportation of whole containers and retail goods

After the sale and purchase agreement negotiated between the Buyer and the Seller completed the Contract Signing and the purchase and sale transaction, the work of the two buying and selling parties began to take place:

The liability of each party depends on the conditions of sale according to the Incoterm regulations. If you are not sure, you need to read the article analyzing the terms in the most recent version of incoterm 2010.

The process of exporting sea goods will take place according to the following steps:

If the exporting party is Vietnam to sell goods, under any conditions, the goods owner must do at least the following tasks:

Consider what the goods are for whole containers or for retail shipments – you can hire FWD directly to perform the following operations:

STEP 1: Book a seat with the shipping company

Checking the train schedule to coincide with the schedule of customers who need to pick up the goods will refer to the shipping lines with good prices for suitable travel. Usually, the company can book with the shipping line in theory, but in reality, the shipping line does not do with retail goods (LCL) or businesses with low output, will not have good prices, strict policy Therefore, businesses often go through FWD- or Consol to get better prices and better services (Debt debt, support, solve arising problems…)

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After making a reservation with the shipping line (about the date of departure, arrival date – freight – ship name and number of trips), the shipping company will provide the necessary content and basic information at the request of the booking issuer to get the booking.

Port of loading information Port of transit information if any Port of discharge information Port of discharge Cargo name, weight Time of vessel sailing Time of packing Place of cargo

(Some other requirements such as: type of cont, size, other requirements for cont are usually clean and beautiful cont.). Refer to the export document sample at here:


Step 2: Check the information on the booking, request correction if there are errors

Check information about port of destination Check type of container, size of container, quantity of container news DEM, DET

Pay attention to check the information if it is not accurate, then contact the booking provider to promptly correct it, avoid mistakes and cause loss of time and costs.

The shipping line returns a confirmation that the booking was successful ( Booking Note ) – need to reconfirm if there is a note attached ( Booking information)

Step 3: Browse Booking vs Shipping Lines – Receive Booking Note

You can browse by email specified by the shipping line or there are some orders that require you to take the booking to the office to approve and issue the seal, there are also some shipping lines that do not need approval, the driver holds the booking and the referral is possible. receive cont and receive seal.

Step 4: The shipping line issues the order to issue containers to pull the goods for packing

Take the order to deliver containers to the container yard to find containers and request them to bring them back to pack

In the event that a satisfactory container cannot be found, a request will be made to the shipping company to re-issue a new container order in order to find a container that meets the requirements for pickup (packing). – Goods packed at factories, workshops with full containers and at CFS warehouses with Retail goods.

Actual Container Bet slip sample in Sea Goods Lecture issued at

When packing goods, this step will be clamped, it should be noted: the goods owner must make a customs declaration for the previous shipment to see what the returned results are (green -1 ) yellow (2) ( red – 3 ) to check or not. This item must be checked, it will be available special packing and loading plan so that when checking goods, no additional loading and unloading fees, time-consuming. ) This must be noted, if you do not pay attention to the closed goods, then you will know that it is very difficult to check the goods after finding the goods. Many businesses pack goods and then transmit declarations, or transmit declarations first or can do two important things at the same time, which is that the goods owner must understand whether their goods have problems related to the inspection or not.

The packer will return the number of Cont _ the number of Lead – the size of the container to make Packinglist (Packing slip) – Packing List

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GENERAL NOTE: Packing goods into containers must be according to container packing standards: VGM (Container weighing slip) is a commitment that the shipper sends goods according to the prescribed standards to minimize accidents when shipping by sea. This VGM business Self-printed business according to the form – stamped and signed and brought to port for customs clearance

There are two common ways to calculate VGM:

C1: VGM= container weight + cargo weight (Gross Weight) C2: VGM: Net weight of cargo + Weight of stuff not + Weight of container

Usually, it will be weighing the container at the station or at the port because the shipping company always re-weighs the container to charge the fee.

Step 5: Prepare appropriate documents and certificates as required by the importing country

(Certificate of plant quarantine, fumigation, quality inspection, health inspection, certificate of origin, ..) – Of course, it must be done right from the moment of the negotiation transaction to know what price is right to sell. The reason why it costs money to do anything is: product price = all related costs included in the cost.

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After closing the goods, you check the goods, take pictures of the scene and press the seal. Then take the container to the port, at the landing port, register for unloading and the procedures at the port of loading.

Pay for unloading at the sales office and are usually assigned to the loading yard to wait for export.

Currently, Cat Lai port allows payment and registration via the Eport system, which is very convenient and saves time. You will be given an online cont discount code.

In fact, enterprises with 1 shipment can hire FWD businesses to do all the operations or can hire // many units at the same time for example: declaration – transportation, license application, packaging…. To reduce costs


As mentioned at that place of packing, you need to prepare all necessary documents and information to conduct customs declaration for the shipment, including:

Contract (Contract)Commercial Invoice (Invoice)Packing note (Packinglist)BookingNumber of contRelevant papers

Making the declaration: Using the electronic customs declaration software Ecus5/ Vaccs (mainly), to make the customs declaration need the following documents:

ContractInvoicePacking list

After completing the declaration, double check and test print, if everything is ok, plug in the digital signature and transmit the declaration.

(It is recommended to transmit the declaration before lowering the container, because the channeling status of the shipment is unknown, it may be green, yellow or red) after knowing the status of the channel, then proceed to lower it to avoid wasting time. additional cost of re-routing if there is an inspection.

Pictures of practice declaration of Sea export goods at the actual import-export class at, Hanoi branch

There are 3 possible flows to your shipment:

Green stream: The declaration will be cleared on the system and returns the result “export declaration (clearance)” Yellow stream: Light level, check documents, ie open the declaration at the customs branch Customs.Red stream: heavier level, also conduct document inspection, ie open declaration at the customs branch, but you must check the reality of your goods depending on the level of inspection required for how much % of shipments.

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In case of doubt about the goods, regardless of the flow, they can receive the decision to break the channel – check the goods

STEP 7: Pay export taxes and fees, if applicable Export tax: zero. Because the state encourages enterprises to export, they do not levy export taxes. Forwarding staff must pay the required fees when working. customs procedures. (150,000 for one declaration)

STEP 8: Withdraw the declaration The forwarder buys stamps (customs fees) and pastes it on the declaration. After checking, the customs will keep the stamped declaration and return it to the forwarder: 1 declaration

Note: For goods to be inspected, it is necessary to prepare documents including:

1 declaration Commercial contract (copy) Invoice (original) Packing list (original) Customs clearance of yards – Export of goods by sea The staff brings the customs declaration cleared to the yard to monitor the number of containers /seal and customs liquidation dump box 27 of the declaration to proceed with the liquidation of the declaration. The forwarding officer copies the electronic customs declaration and then submits the declaration (both photocopy and original) for inspection at the liquidation room. .Customs liquidation check seal and return the original

STEP 9: Enter the ship book – Export goods by sea

Based on the Booking, the forwarder writes the ship number, trip number, container number, seal number in boxes 28, 29 of the declaration into the ship book. The forwarder submits the customs declaration to enter the ship book. return the declaration and confirmation slip to the ship book. Finish the process of clearing customs for the lot export goods by sea at the port. Goods are loaded onto the ship.

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Note: You must enter the ear number before Closing Time or else you will be late for the ship and must always contact the shipping company to get the bill (MBL) to transfer the documents to the buyer, as a payment request to receive the buyer’s money. Exporting goods by sea The forwarding staff transfers a set of documents (copy) to the customer so that they can send information to the relevant shipping line to request a bill of lading. After the ship runs, the shipping company will send a bill of lading to the customer. corporate documents department. The document department will give the bill of lading delivery staff for actual export. The forwarder will go to the Customs Sub-department to submit the declaration and bill of lading for the customs to stamp to confirm the actual export.

Basically, the job of exporting goods by sea has that much work. Depending on the Version of the Incoterm and the terms and agreements already in place during the transaction, what the two parties will perform the work include. Specifically, sea import work must do what readers refer to in related professional articles: