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The socialization of education and health care activities is a major policy of the Party and State, initially certain results have been achieved in mobilizing social resources to meet the increasing needs of the people. the strata. However, in reality in this field there are still many limitations and obstacles, one of the basic and important reasons is that the awareness of socialization is still not consistent and smooth at all levels, sectors as well as in the field of socialization. all society.
Watching: What is Socialization?
Up to now, there are many different and even contradictory conceptions of the concept of socialization in our country. Basically, socialization is used with two main meanings.
First, socialization is defined as “making common to society”. This concept comes from the history of human production development, socialization is the process of transforming from an individual and private production to a public and public production. possess. The same word, in the original English meaning, “socialization” is often used in the sense of “collectivization”, “putting under the community system”, “managing or controlling (of the state) in the name of society”. … that is, what is socialized must be provided free of charge by the government. For example, “socialized medicine” or “socialized medicine” means medical care provided by the government for free to the people.
Second, socialization is used to refer to the increased attention, interest, and widespread participation of society (individuals, groups, organizations, communities, etc.) the number of activities that were previously performed by only a certain unit, department or functional branch; is an action motto of all levels, branches, social organizations, from micro to macro in order to promote internal resources, mobilize the community, or mobilize social capital from the people, according to the following mechanism: The Party leads, the State manages, the people master; The State and the people work together. Accordingly, the content of educational socialization is explained as: “Educational development is the cause of the State and the whole people; The State plays a leading role in the development of education; Diversify types of schools and forms of education; Encourage, mobilize and create conditions for organizations and individuals to participate in educational development; Every organization, family and citizen has the responsibility to take care of the cause of education.”
According to this approach, many people argue that, “Socialization of education means that the state must create the social, legal and political space for the formation of an educational sector in which everyone has access to education. the right to contribute to the cause of education, to compete in the quality of education, that is, education must belong to society”(4); Or to put it another way: “The socialization of education must first of all be the socialization of the space and the right to participate in education, school management, program design and implementation of educational activities of all members of society”. At the same time, “socialization of education does not mean that the state transfers or entrusts its constitutional duties to individuals, organizations and businesses, but rather creates conditions for the entire society to participate in education.” education, so that it best meets the needs of all members of society, so that everyone can go to school, and everyone has the same conditions to enjoy the same opportunities in life.”
Thus, the concept of socialization of education and health can be understood as a process of mobilizing the participation in different forms of social actors and communities, and at the same time enhancing the role of the State in the field of health. with education and health care in order to improve the quality and expand the beneficiaries, contribute to the implementation of social justice in contributing to and enjoying education and health services.
The above analysis shows that the concept of socialization of education and health in Vietnam has a different meaning compared to the concept of “socialization/socialize” of Western countries. “The socialization of education in Vietnam is an approach, a way to be applied to solve specific problems unique to Vietnamese education”. Education and healthcare in Vietnam, which are social services fully guaranteed by the State, play a unique role in organizing the supply during a rather long period of implementing the socio-economic management model. The country’s society follows a centralized and subsidized mechanism, and only when the doi moi process begins, the country transitions to a multi-sector economic mechanism, can these social services be socialized, i.e. with the participation of society and individual organizations. That is different from Western countries where private education and health care first appeared, then state organizational forms were formed. With such a connotation, it is suggested that, when translating the term “socialization” into a foreign language, For example, in French, it must be translated into “mobilisation”, ie encouragement, attraction, but cannot be translated as “socialisation”.
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In fact, there is a situation in our country today where some researchers, coming from the concept of socialization in the first sense, disagree, even oppose the use of socialization in the second sense, ” In sociology, socialization is quite different in meaning from the “socialization” that is abused in the ordinary literature. In essence, “socialization” in the mass media means “privatization”; and this is conceptual swapping, or not daring to call things by their own names” (9). Or another case is based on the original meaning of the word “socialization” and based on a number of deviant and deformed phenomena, in the name of socialization to do business to make profit in the process of providing social services, It is argued that the term “socialization” in Vietnam is “more and more casually used in the opposite sense – in the sense of placing the financial burden on citizens, and leaving the private sector to take care of it.” a number of areas under the State’s obligations to manage, especially education and training”.
Implementing the national renewal process, the economy has initially developed, but many social problems, including education and health care, pose many pressing problems that need to be resolved. Faced with that situation, the Party and State have made many major undertakings and policies to develop the cause of education and health care, one of which is the implementation of socialization of education and health care activities.
The policy of socialization of education and healthcare continues to be further clarified by the Resolutions of the VIII and IX National Congress of the Party: socialization of education is mobilizing the whole society to educate and mobilize all classes of people. contribute to building the national education under the management of the State; social policies are conducted in the spirit of socialization, upholding the responsibility of governments at all levels, mobilizing resources among the people and participating in mass organizations and social organizations.
Resolution of the Xth Congress affirms that the State will continue to increase resources, focus on investing in national target programs in education, health care, etc., while promoting the intellectual and material resources of the people. of the whole society to work with the State to solve social problems and take care of the development of public services.
The draft documents submitted to the 11th Party Congress continue to state the requirements for perfecting mechanisms and policies to socialize education and training in all three aspects: mobilizing resources in society; promote the supervisory role of the community; encouraging study and talent promotion activities, building a learning society, creating conditions for people to have lifelong learning; increasing state investment at the same time as promoting the socialization of health care activities.
The basic contents of the current socialization of educational and medical activities in our country are:
Firstly, socializing education and health activities is mobilizing and exploiting social resources to diversify forms of providing education, training and health care services; mobilize the entire population to care for the young generation, create a healthy educational environment, voluntarily exercise their bodies, prevent epidemics, maintain hygiene and protect the environment, etc., while creating conditions for expansion. beneficiaries of education and health services, especially policy beneficiaries, the poor, have both contributed to ensuring social justice in contributing to and benefiting from education, training and care services. health.
From the perspective of exploiting, promoting resources, and socializing education and health activities, is to arouse and mobilize the potentials of human, material and financial resources in society, to build a responsible community. responsible for contributing and paying for education and health services; create study promotion funds, tuition and hospital fees support funds for pupils, students, unemployed, poor…, and implement universal health insurance; effectively exploit the resources of foreign partners, international organizations…
From the perspective of service beneficiaries, the socialization of education and healthcare activities must create conditions for them to participate in the management of education and health activities as well as to build mechanisms and policies. policies, supervise the supply and selection of education and health services in order to create high-quality resources in terms of intelligence, skills and health to meet society’s requirements.
From the perspective of the person directly providing the service, the education, training and medical staff are guaranteed the right to freedom in professional activities in accordance with the law; to promote all creative abilities in order to diversify forms of service provision such as public, non-public, formal, informal, supplementary, in-service, remote… (for education, training, etc.) create); State, collective, people-founded, private… (for healthcare), contributing to satisfying the diverse, rich and increasing needs of the people of all classes.
Second, socialize education and health activities, and at the same time strengthen the role of the State in ensuring the organization and provision of education and health services in order to improve the efficiency and quality of service to the people better. Promoting the socialization of education and health activities is a method of developing the cause of education and healthcare of the Party and our State in the context of developing the market economy, building and perfecting the legal state. socialist rights, rather than simply increasing people’s contributions to reduce the State’s budget burden or limit the State’s role.
Stemming from the role and characteristics of education and health services, the State is not only responsible for promulgating mechanisms and policies and stipulating standards, norms, quality, prices, and fees… education and health services, but must ensure that the provision of basic education and health services such as universal education, primary health care, and disease prevention meet basic needs, weakness of society. Therefore, the socialization of education and health requires the exploitation, promotion and effective use of social resources, and at the same time continue to increase and effectively use the State budget for investment in education. education and health sector; strengthen the inspection and examination responsibilities of state agencies in order to overcome the limitations, weaknesses and negative aspects of education and health, contributing to improving the quality of education and health services to meet the than the needs of all classes of people.
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Third, promoting and developing the socialization of education and health care must be associated with the renovation of educational and health management mechanisms and policies to create a healthy social, legal and political space to development of education and health services. Renovate the objectives, methods, structure and sources of investment capital of the State in the direction of focusing on priority targets and national programs; support remote, isolated and ethnic minority areas; giving preferential treatment to policy beneficiaries and supporting the poor on the basis of reforming the fee exemption and reduction regime towards publicity, reasonableness and direct granting to beneficiaries.
To strongly shift public educational and medical institutions operating under the administrative-subsidized non-business mechanism to an autonomous and self-responsible mechanism; transforming a number of public service providers into self-financed or private entities; encourage organizations and individuals to contribute capital to invest in the development of educational and medical service establishments; creating conditions for non-public educational and medical institutions to be established and developed in both scale and quality. Develop a mechanism for service beneficiaries to choose service providers, regardless of public or non-public, in order to create a healthy competitive environment among different types of service providers. Determine the system of standards, quality norms, price brackets, fees, etc. of services. Review economic and technical norms to research, amend and supplement a number of standards and norms in the fields of education and health as a basis for non-business units to exercise their autonomy and self-responsibility. duty. Strengthen inspection and examination activities by state agencies, promptly and strictly handle violations in order to ensure the quantity and quality of education and health services provided to the people. Research and promulgate Regulations on supervision and social criticism to facilitate the promotion of the role of mass organizations and mass organizations, especially professional associations in participating in social consultation, criticism and assessment … the guidelines, policies and laws related to the development of education and health of the country. At the same time, encourage people and social organizations to participate in supervising professional activities, in order to improve the quality of education and health services.