We are living in a technology age, where each individual and organization can access and use a huge amount of data and resources anytime, anywhere.

Watching: What is Gis

In it, the data related to geographical location, weather, environment is used daily, hourly, and several times a day.

All that data is related to GIS – but not everyone knows much about it. So let’s learn about GIS with Vietnam Geodetic Technology Development Joint Stock Company to gain more useful knowledge!

What is GIS

?GIS (short for Geographic Information System – Translated as Geographic Information System) is a computer system used to collect, store, examine, manage and display Displays location-related data on the earth’s surface.

Geographic Information System (GIS) can bring many types of information on a map such as buildings, roads, vegetation, etc. It makes it easy for users to see, analyze and understand patterns and relationships. relationship.

Two major GIS map formats

The two main GIS data formats are raster maps and vector maps.

A Raster map is a map with a dot matrix data structure, representing a rectangular grid of pixels. Raster maps are very useful in storing GIS in many formats, presented visually and easily.

Vector Map

Vector map format in GIS is made up of polygons, using points and lines to represent. Vector maps are used to represent GIS data related to borders, cadastral, roads, buildings.

Early maps before GIS

Before the advent of digital technology, surveying engineers were trying to create maps that were the forerunner of today’s GIS.

One of them is John Snow’s legendary map showing cholera epidemic areas in London.

From boats, modern maps today are still created from the previous principles.

GIS monitoring and assessment of natural resources

People also use GIS data to analyze and evaluate human resources.

Specifically, surveyors also use data from the GNSS satellite system to observe and evaluate what they want.

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The picture shows a map of India’s rice production, red shows high yielding areas, blue shows low yields and white shows no rice cultivation. The black lines are the large aqueducts.

GIS creeps into all industries

GIS plays a pivotal role in economic development. State management agencies need GIS data to manage, build and develop land resources. Companies need GIS data to move goods globally.

One cannot find an industry/occupation that does not need GIS data.

GIS tracks the movement of the earth’s crust

Without GIS data, it is difficult to realize the movement of soil, land, rivers, climate, environment.

With GIS, scientists can monitor changes occurring on the earth’s surface, give warnings to minimize their impact on human life.

You can get traces of the ice sheet shrinking at the North Pole, signaling the rapid warming of the earth’s crust.

See also: What is a track?

Nowadays, with the development of GNSS satellite system, GIS has more data and becomes an important part of any country’s database.

GIS technology is defined by the White House as “the technology, policies, standards, resources, and related activities necessary for the collection, processing, distribution, use, maintenance, and preservation of data that is not global space”.

There are different types of information that need to be compared with GIS technology to confirm accuracy, such as:


about people: Population, income, education level… Landscape data: Location of rivers, streams, vegetation… Economic data: Geography Points, locations of factories, farms, etc. Infrastructure data: Roads, hospitals….

2. History of GIS

Over the past five decades, GIS has evolved from a concept into a science. From a rudimentary tool to a modern, powerful global platform.

Infancy of GIS

GIS was born in the 1960s when computers and the early concepts of computational and quantitative geography appeared. GIS work was originally the study of spatial analysis, coordinate construction, topographic imaging… These research efforts spurred a revolution in the world of geosciences and laid the groundwork. for GIS.

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Starts to be managed by computer

In 1963, Roger Tomlinson became a pioneer in the development of GIS, authorized by the Canadian government to create a computer-manageable geographic data warehouse. He created designs for computers to store and process large amounts of data on land resources for his country.

First time mapping software created

In 1964, Howard Fisher created the first mapping software called SYMAP. In 1965, he founded the Harvard Research Laboratory, which gathered geographers, talented planners and scientists, introduced the original concepts of GIS and its many applications.

GIS is recognized by management and planning agencies

In 1969, Jack Dangermond – a member of the Harvard Research Laboratory – founded the Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. The company has used mapping and spatial analysis applications to help managers make decisions about land resource planning.

Since then, many GIS mapping and spatial analysis methods have been created and are still in use.

GIS goes into commercial operation

Recognized by scientists and managers worldwide, combined with the development of science and technology, GIS is improved day by day to meet the needs of economic, military and political development. global..

In 1981, ARC/INFO – The first commercial GIS product was born, marking the strong development of this technology.

GIS today

Today, GIS has a variety of data to provide the ability for any individual or organization to create multi-layer maps tailored to the requirements of each industry.

Every day, hundreds of thousands of organizations are collectively creating billions of maps for business purposes.

Individuals also regularly use maps to address their day-to-day needs.

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3. Elements for Running GIS Today

Today, GIS is operated around five key elements: Hardware, software, data, people, and methods.


Hardware is the computers on which GIS software works. GIS software works on a wide variety of hardware, from central servers to desktop computers, laptops, and electronic notebooks. Networking profiles are also part of the GIS ecosystem


GIS software provides functionality to store, display, and analyze information. GIS software includes the following components:

Data export, import, and management tools GIS data visualization, analysis and querying tools, Graphical user interface


Data is the most important component of GIS. The data can be collected using a variety of methods:

People and methods

No technology can work without the human element to manage, give method, plan and execute.

4. GIS In Vietnam

The great contributions of geographic information systems (GIS) in Vietnam are undisputed in:

Create national sovereignty landmarks at borders and islands. Create cadastral maps at national administrative units. Planning, management and use of land. Monitoring the operation of natural resources, human resources, climate, economy, technology…Construction of industrial and civil works.…

However, the development of Vietnam’s geographic information system (GIS) is facing difficulties due to the following reasons:

About human resources: There are not many good engineers who can grasp and use GIS-related technologies fluently, especially machines such as: 2-frequency GPS machine, Total station, ARK UAV, Depth meter reply… About training: There are not many universities that train GIS personnel on a large enough scale to meet the market demand.

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Job opportunities in geodesy, surveying, geographic information are many and the salary is higher than other industries, hope readers have more orientation for their children.