Overview of Microsoft’s virtualization technology

Virtual machine technology applies to both server and workstation hardware. Virtual machine technology allows multiple operating systems to run concurrently on a single computer. This technology allows for hardware consolidation because multiple operating systems can run on the same computer. Key uses of virtual machine technology include cross-platform integration and the following capabilities:

Server consolidation: if multiple servers run applications that consume only a small fraction of available resources, virtual machine technology can be used to allow multiple applications to run in parallel on a single server right away. even when these applications require different versions of the operating system or middleware. Unified for deployment and test environments: each virtual machine acts as its own environment which reduces risk and enables developers to rapidly rebuild operating system configurations operating systems or compare versions of applications designed for different operating systems. In addition, it is also possible to test early development versions of an application in a virtual machine without fear of losing system stability to other users. Private application re-hosting: native operating systems and applications can run on new hardware along with more recently released operating systems and applications. Simplify incident prevention and recovery planning: virtual machine technology can be used as an important part of troubleshooting. Move to a dynamic data center: Hyper-V with system management solutions helps you create a dynamic IT environment. This environment not only allows you to respond to incidents more effectively, but also to build a self-managing and preventive IT management solution.

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Microsoft’s virtualization technology has many components, of which there are five main components that represent five virtualization directions according to the needs of businesses:

Server Virtualization.Application Virtualization.Desktop Virtualization.Presentation VirtualizationUser State Virtualization.

Figure 1. Microsoft’s virtualization solution model

Hyper-V is a central component of Microsoft’s virtualization modeling strategy from Datacenter to Desktop.

Hyper-v . Virtualization

What is Hyper-V? Hyper-V, formerly Viridian, is a hypervisor-based technology and a key feature of Windows Server 2008 and inherited by later versions of windows. This technology provides a highly available, reliable, and scalable virtualization platform. It’s part of Microsoft’s ongoing efforts to provide customers and partners with the best operating system platform for virtualization.

Hyper-V is part of Microsoft’s virtualization strategy, Hyper-V’s server virtualization features can help not only corporate-scale servers with hundreds or thousands of workstations, but also servers. in small offices. Hyper-V enables the creation of virtual machines with large memory and virtual multi-core CPUs, dynamic storage solutions, and a new generation of high-speed networking.

Hyper-V model applied on windows server 2016 running on server HP 380 G10

2.1 Benefits of Hyper-VOR

The benefits of Hyper-V include:

Reliability:

Hyper-V provides better reliability and greater scalability for infrastructure virtualization. Hypervisor does not depend on any third-party device drivers. It leverages the majority of device drivers that have been built for Windows. The highlight is that you can manage the services on Server Core using the command line interface (CLI) or remotely manage it with the MMC tool and the built-in Remote Server Administration Tools tool in the Windows operating system.

Strong virtualization server:

Virtualization allows the ability to use, manage resources, applications efficiently on a server. Virtualization servers are capable of doing their job with great flexibility, taking full advantage of hardware capabilities, without conflict with other virtualization servers. Hyper-V tightly controls the hardware resources available to each virtual machine.

Security:

Security is a key challenge in every server solution. Virtualized servers have less exposure to other server functions on the same main system. When deploying multiple server functions on a computer, each virtualized server performs one function, then if a virtualized server loses control, it still ensures that it is difficult for an attacker to continue. exposed to other virtualization machines on the same physical server. Virtualization provides the opportunity to enhance security for all server platforms

Efficiency:

Hyper-V can handle more demanding workloads than previous virtualization solutions and provides in-system growth. Performance includes:

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Improved speed through hypervisor core virtualization architecture. Multithreading support increased to four processors on virtualized server. Enhanced 64-bit support, allowing virtualized servers to run operating systems bit-64 and access to large amounts of memory (up to 64 GB per VM), allowing for more intensive workloads. The hypervisor architecture allows for fragmentation of executable layers and drivers, working tightly Closer to hardware architecture virtualization. Improve hardware performance. Share, optimize data transfer between physical hardware and virtual machines.

2.2 Architecture of Hyper-VU

The Hyper-V architecture consists of three main components:

Hypervisor prevents virtualization (Virtual stack)Parent PartitionChild Partitions

Figure 2 Hyper-V architecture model

Hypervisor

Hypervisor guarantees to create a really powerful decoupled system that supports on it

various operating systems by creating virtual processors using Timer and interrupt controllers. Thereby these operating systems are based on the use of these virtualized resources like a real hardware system.

As a participant in Hyper-V, Hypervisor provides functions

The following features are required to participate in the physical server virtualization process:

Create logical partitions.Job manager plans memory and processor for virtual machines.Enforce memory access rules.Enforce CPU resource usage policy.Provide mechanisms for arranging I/O and communication between partitions of the system Offers a simple program interface called Hypercalls.

2.2.2 Parent Partition

This is the partition that is responsible for creating and managing sub-partitions on the system and

includes the ability to use WMI for remote management. This partition also has to manage and allocate hardware devices and expose to the processor and memory allocation all that works through the Hypervisor layer. The parent partition’s hardware resources will be shared and allocated for use by the child partitions. In addition, it is also responsible for managing power, operating status and recording errors when they occur.

Figure 3 Parent partition model

Virtual Machine Management Service (VMM service): is responsible for managing the state of virtual machines operating in sub-partitions (Active, Offline, Stopped…) and controlling tasks affecting the current virtual machine state. is the act of creating Snapshot. When a virtual machine is started, the VMM Service creates a separate Virtual Machine Worker Process for each virtual machine that is started.Virtual Machine Worker Process: This component is initialized by the VMM Service when the virtual machine is started. A Virtual Machine Worker Process will be created specifically for each Hyper-V virtual machine and is responsible for managing the interactions between the parent partition running Windows Server 2008 and the child partition running the client operating system. Virtual Devices: managed by the Virtual Motherboard (VMB). The VMB is contained in the Virtual Machine Worker, which is allocated separately for each virtual machine. Virtual Devices has two types of Core Vdevs and Vdevs plugin. In particular, Core Vdevs has two types: Emulated Devices, specific device hardware such as Vesa Video Card, floppy Disk, BIOS… and Synthetic Devices. It does not rely on hardware devices. specific network card, hard drive… and only on clients that support Integration Services.Virtual Infrastructure Driver : operates in Kernel Mode providing processor memory partition management for virtual machines operating in the partition child. Virtual Infrastrucsture Driver is also responsible for higher functional components Virtualization Stack associated with Hypervisor.Windows Hypervisor Interface Library : A DLL library contained in the Parent Partition that is running the operating system and any client operating systems installed certified to work on Child Partition (on the list of supported operating systems) of Hyper-V.VMBus : is a component of Integration Services in Hyper-V responsible for optimizing communication between the part parent and child partitions.Virtualization Service Providers : is only present in the parent partition and is responsible for providing aggregate device support via VMBus to Virtual Service Clients (VSCs) running in the child partition.Virtualization Service Clients : are composite device instances residing in sub-partitions. They communicate with the VSPs in the parent partition via VMBus to perform device accesses of the child partitions.

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2.2.3 Child Partition

A Child Partition is a logical hardware partition running a standalone operating system in a Hyper-V environment.

Subzones are one of the three key concepts in Hyper-V environments. The two remaining components are the main partition (Root Partition) and the parent partition (Parent Partition). However that was before since Hyper-V version 1.0 the primary partition and the parent partition were equivalent without distinction. Of course, there is only one parent partition on a physical machine running Hyper-V and the number of child partitions depends on the amount of available resources and is almost unlimited.

Each partition owns independent memory and processor resources and maintains policy information about device usage. The parent partition has all access to memory and physical devices directly enables the Hypervisor layer. As well as being responsible for creating and managing sub-partitions. Each sub-partition can run a separate operating system commonly known as the guest operating system (Guest OS).

Subpartitions contain Hyper-V-oriented Windows operating systems: Windows operating systems that are compatible with Hyper-V allowing maximum performance during deployment. The Integration Service can be used to initiate Virtual Service Clients to communicate with Virtual Service Providers (VSPs) running on the primary partition via VMBus. Subpartitions containing operating systems other than Windows in the direction of Hyper-V: are operating systems that are not part of the Windows family but are compatible with Hyper-V.

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2.3 Highlights of Hyper-V

Broad Operating System Support : the ability to support a variety of operating systems of different workstations including both 32-bit and 64-bit and a variety of server platforms such as Windows, Linux…Hardware Assisted Virtualization: high system requirements System must have Intel-VT or AMD-V support when deployed.Symmetric Multiproccessor (SMP) Support: support 4 processors for a virtual machine environment thereby taking advantage of multiple application threads being processed. on a virtual machine.Virtual Machine Snapshots: allows to capture the configuration and status of a virtual machine at any point in time, providing the ability to restore certain current snapshots in seconds. Helps restore restore the original status of workstations when they fail quickly, without wasting much time. Hyper-V Snapshot function is specially designed for testing and development environment, not in working structure.Hot Adding And Hot Removal Of Storage: with this feature it is possible to separate software running on one hardware, easy to deploy and manage. With this flexibility, the ability to expand as well as reduce the need for separate storage of virtual machines. With Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V, added the ability to add and remove virtual hard disks from a virtual machine while it is still active.Dynamic Memory: enables automatic management of internal virtual memory requirements Hyper-V Server.

2.4 Main components of Hyper-V

Hyper-V comes in two main forms

Second form: Microsoft Hyper-V Server Core is a standalone product based on the same virtualization architecture available in Windows Server Hyper-V. Works like Server Core, using command line interface to configure or tools like Hyper-V, RSAT…

2.4.1 Hosting in Hyper-VOR

Hyper-V supports a number of different storage options, including direct storage devices such as SATA or SAS and SAN storage, such as FC, iSCSI. Once the Hyper-V servers have been connected for storage, it can be provisioned to the virtual machine in a variety of ways.

Once the storage has been connected to the Hyper-V server, hosting the client OS can be done as follows:

Create a virtual hard disk (VHD) on a Hyper-V host drive, the hard disk is simply a file stored on a Hyper-V host drive. There are two types of virtual hard disks, Dynamic and Fixed. The maximum size of a VHD file is 2048 GB. Using a Passthrough disc allows direct drive access. Before configuring a virtual machine with a Passthrough disk, the disk must be set to Offline so that there is no contention between the virtual machine and the Hyper-V host.

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There are 3 types of connections to drives to virtual machines, based on the following drivers:

IDE: allows drives up to 2048 GB, providing high performance on par with SCSI. The IDE controller supports either virtual hard disks or Passthrough disks. The virtual machine can be up to four IDE disks (2 controllers with 2 disks). In Hyper-V, it is possible to start a virtual machine using a virtual disk connected through the IDE interface. Booting from virtual SCSI is not supported. SCSI: is a composite device. There can be up to four SCSI controllers per virtual machine. Each controller supports 64 disks, for a total of 256 disks per virtual machine. Each virtual machine is not configured to boot from a SCSI.iSCSI controller: virtual machines connected to a physical network can take advantage of iSCSI storage. The virtual machine connects directly to the iSCSI storage device over the iSCSI network, bypassing the connection to the Hyper-V host. All that is needed is proper configuration in the virtual machines and iSCSI runs somewhere on the network and can access the virtual machine. There is no limit to the number of iSCSI disks supported on a virtual machine.

2.4.2 Network in Hyper-VOR

With Hyper-V, client operating systems never have direct access to the hardware, Hyper-V management interfaces can control traffic through virtual and physical interfaces. .

Hyper-V has a Virtual Network Manager that is used to create and control virtual switches. There is no limit to the number of virtual switches that can be created – it depends on the type of virtual network that will work together. For example external virtual networks are basically all on physical NICs, so there can only be as many external networks as there are physical NICs.

All machines virtual network connected to the same switch of the virtual network will all be connected to

same switch. Each virtual switch will be logically isolated from all other virtual switches. If you want the Hosts to connect to a certain virtual switch to communicate with the Hosts located on another virtual switch, then you must create a virtual router, VPN server, firewall or similar device to those on the network. physical network.

There are three types of Virtual Network Cards that can be connected in Hyper-V:

Private Virtual Network: is a virtual switch that only virtual machines can connect to. Guest operating systems connected to the same Private Virtual Network can communicate with each other. This network card cannot communicate with the host operating systems.Internal Virtual Network: is an isolated virtual switch like the Private Virtual Network but in the case of Internal Virtual Network the Host operating system can access the machines. virtual guest via Internal Virtual Network Virtual Switch.External Virtual Network: connects to physical network adapters. This network card is responsible for connecting to the physical machine to connect to the external network. After installing Hyper-V and configuring the IP address for the real network card, all these IPs will be transferred to External.

Hyper-V supports two types of virtual NICs: Legacy NIC and High Speed ​​NIC. Each virtual machine can have up to 12 virtual NICs attached to it, more specifically, up to 8 High Speed ​​NICs and 4 Legacy NICs.

2.4.3 Management tools

Figure 4 Hyper-VU Management Tool

Use the Hyper-V Manager tool to manage virtual machines, which is created when Hyper-V is installed.

Hyper-V Manager has several features such as:

New virtual machine: Create virtual machines for the system.Export and Import: used for migrating virtual machines between hosts. HostVirtual Machine Manager: managing virtual network cards in Hyper-V.

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Edit Disk: manage drives for virtual machines in the system. Snapshot: used to capture the working process of virtual machines, when any virtual machine is damaged, it can be restored quickly without having to rebuild from scratch.