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The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standard visual modeling language used for business modeling and similar processes, for analysis, design, and development. deploy software-based systems. UML is a popular language for business analysts, architects, and software developers. UML is used to describe, specify, design, and document existing or new business processes, the structure and behavior of software system products, and so on.


I. Introduction

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standard visual modeling language used for business modeling and similar processes, for analysis, design, and development. deploy software-based systems. UML is a popular language for business analysts, architects, and software developers. UML is used to describe, specify, design, and document existing or new business processes, structure, and behavior of software system products.

Viewing: What is Uml

UML can be applied to diverse application areas (e.g. banking, finance, internet, aerospace, medical, etc.). It is used with all software development methods and is the main object for various deployment platforms (e.g. J2EE, .NET).

UML is a standard modeling language, not a software development process. The UML 1.4.2 specification explains that process: providing guidance on the order of team activities, specifying what should be developed, directing the tasks of the entire developer, and setting standards. to monitor and measure project deliverables and activities.

The current version of the Unified Modeling Language is UML 2.5, released in June 2015. The standard UML specification is updated and managed by the OMG UML Object Management Team. The first versions of UML were created by “Three Amigos” – Grady Booch (creator of the Booch method), Ivar Jacobson (Object-Oriented Software Engineering, OOSE) and Jim Rumbaugh (Object Modeling Engineering) statue, OMT). The history of UML development is summarized as follows:

Version Date Description 1.1 11/1997 UML Proposition 1.1 adopted by OMG. 1.3 03/2000 Contains several changes to the UML metamodel, semantics, and notation, which should be considered a minor upgrade to the original proposal. 1.4 09/2001 Released “modified” primarily but not fully compatible with UML 1.3. Add configurations as grouped UML extensions. Update visibility of features. Artifact has been added to represent physical representations of components. 1.5 03/2003 Add actions and execution procedures, including runtime, define the concept of data flow to transfer data between actions, etc. 1.4.2 01/2005 This version is approved ISO/IEC 19501 certification. UML 1.5 was released 2 years ago. 2.0 08/2005 New diagram: object diagram, package diagram, mixed structure diagram, interactive overview diagram, time diagram, profile diagram. The collaboration diagram is renamed the communication diagram. Activity diagrams and sequence diagrams have been enhanced. Operations are redesigned to use the same semantics. Edges can now be contained in partitions. Partitions can be hierarchical and multidimensional. Object lines are explicitly modeled. Classes are extended with internal structs and gates (composite structs). Information flow is added. New notation for correlation and branching using associative segments. Notation and/or semantics have been updated for components, implementations, and implementation artifacts. Components can no longer be deployed directly to nodes. New data has been added: connector, collaborative usage, connector, device, deployment specification, execution environment, accept event action, dispatch object action, action structure feature, pin value, last activity, central buffer node, data storage, last flow, interrupt zones, loop node, parameter, gate, behavior, behavior classifier , duration, interval, time constraint, association fragment, create event, destroy event, execute event, interactive fragment, signal event, extend,… Integration between models Structure and behavior have been improved with better support for execution patterns. 2.1 04/2006 Minor UML 2.0 revisions – bug fixes and consistency improvements. 2.2 02/2009 Fixed many minor consistency issues and added explanations for UML 2.1.2 2.3 05/2010 Minor UML 2.2 revisions, clarified groups and association classes, added final classification, diagram updated components, composite structures, actions, etc. 2.4.1 08/2011 Modified UML with a few bug fixes and updates for classes, package – package attribute URI added; update action; remove generate events, execute events, send and receive activity events, send and receive signal events, rename discard events to the occurrence specification. 2.5 06/2015 UML 2.5, the author team spent a lot of effort to simplify and reorganize the UML specification document. The UML specification was rewritten “to make it easier to read”. For example, they tried to “reduce the references as much as possible”. No longer two separate superstructure and infrastructure documents, the UML 2.5 specification is a single document. Package merge is no longer used in the specification. The four levels of UML compliance (L0, L1, L2 and L3) have been dropped, as they are not useful in practice. UML 2.5 tools will have to support the complete UML specification. Information flows, models, and patterns are no longer backend UML structures. At the same time, use cases, implementations, and information flows became “complementary concepts” in UML 2.5. UML 2.5 has a number of bug fixes, clarifications, and explanations added. Version 2.5 has updated the description, clarifying the definitions of aggregates and components. The default for sets is changed from {incomplete, detached} to {incomplete, overlapping}.

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II. 2.5 . UML Features

A UML diagram is a partial graphical representation (view) of a system model that is being designed, implemented, or already exists. UML diagrams contain graphical elements (symbols) – UML nodes connected to edges (also known as paths or flows) – that represent elements in the UML model of the system being designed . The UML model of the system may also contain other documents such as use cases written as templates.

The type of diagram is determined by the main graphical symbols displayed on the diagram. For example, a diagram in which the main symbols in the content area are classes is a class diagram. A diagram that represents use cases and actors is a use case diagram. A sequence diagram represents the sequence of message exchange between networks.

The UML specification does not preclude mixing different types of diagrams, e.g. to combine structural and behavioral elements to show a nested state machine in a use case. Therefore, the boundary between diagram types is not strictly enforced.

UML Diagram Classification 2.5

The UML specification defines two main types of UML diagrams: structure diagrams and behavior diagrams.

The structure diagram shows the static structure of the system and its parts at different levels of abstraction, implementation, and how they are related to each other. Elements in a structure diagram represent meaningful concepts of a system,

A behavior diagram shows the actions of objects in a system, which can be described as a sequence of changes to the system over time.

UML 2.5 diagrams can be hierarchically classified as below. Note, the items shown in blue are not part of the official UML 2.5 classification.

UML structure diagram 2.5

Structural diagrams do not use time-related concepts, do not show details of actions. However, they can show relationships with the behaviors of the classifiers represented in the structural diagram.

Diagram Purpose Element Class diagram Shows the structure of a system, subsystem, or component designed as classes and related interfaces, with features, constraints, and relationships of them – association, generalization, dependency… classes, interfaces, features, constraints, associations, generalizations, dependencies. object diagram Class diagram showing the specifications of the classes and interfaces (objects), where the value specifications are, and the association (the binding version). An object diagram was defined in the obsolete UML 1.4.2 Specification as “a graph of instances, consisting of data objects and values. The static object diagram is an instance of the class diagram; it shows a snapshot of the detailed state of the system at a time. The UML 2.5 specification simply does not provide an object diagram definition. specification, object, slot, link. Package diagram Shows packages and the relationships between packages. package, pack element, dependency, import element, import package, merge package. A UML backend structure diagram shows some abstraction, or concrete view of a system, to describe architectural, logical, or behavioral aspects of the system. model, package, packing element, dependencies. composite structure diagram Diagram that can be used to show: The internal structure of the component; An internal structure diagram shows the internal structure of a classifier – decomposes the classifier into its attributes, parts, and relationships. layer structure, part, port, connection, use. Collaboration use diagram Shows objects in a system that cooperate with each other to produce some behavior of the system. See more: What is Cbd – Cbd Essential Oil is suitable interact, connect, part, depend. Component diagram Shows the components and the dependencies between them. This type of diagram is used for Component Based Development (CBD), to describe systems with a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). component, interface, provided interface, required interface, class, port, connector, artifact, component implementation, use. Manifestation diagram While component diagrams show components and their relationships, classification and implementation diagrams. Since the expression diagram is not defined by the UML 2.5 specification, the rendering of components by artifact can be visualized using either the component diagram or the implementation diagram. expression, composition, product. Deployment diagram Shows the architecture of the system as a deployment (delivery) of software products to deployment goals. Note, those components were deployed directly to the nodes in the UML 1.x deployment diagram. In UML 2.x products are deployed to nodes and components are deployed to nodes indirectly through artifacts. The specification-level (also called type-level) deployment diagram shows an overview of the implementation of artifacts for deployment targets, without referencing specific instances of products or nodes. Instance-level deployment diagrams showing implementations of instances of the artifact for specific instances of deployment targets. For example, it can be used to show deployment differences to development, staging, or production environments with the names/ids of specific deployment or build servers or devices. deployment, artifact, deployment target, node, device, execution environment, communication pipeline, deployment specification, network architecture diagram Possible deployment diagrams used to show the logical or physical network architecture of the system. This type of deployment diagram – not formally defined in UML 2.5 – can be called a network architecture diagram. node, switch, router, load balancer, firewall, communication path, network segment, backbone. Profile diagram A backend UML diagram that allows defining custom templates, tagged values, and constraints as a lightweight extension mechanism for the UML standard. Configuration allows to adapt the UML metamodel to different platforms (such as J2EE or .NET) or domains (such as real-time or business process modeling). Profile diagrams were first introduced in UML 2.0. profile, data specification, template, extension, reference, application profile.

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UML 2.5 . Behavior Diagram

A behavior diagram shows the actions of objects in a system, which can be described as a sequence of changes to the system over time.

Intent Diagram Element Usecase diagram Describes a set of actions (use cases) that some system or subject system should or can perform in conjunction with another. or more external users of the system (agents) of the system Note, the UML 2.4.1 specification stated that the Use Case Diagram is a business of the Class Diagram such that the classifiers are exposed. Display is restricted to Actor or Use Case form. use case, agent, topic, extend, include, association. Information flow diagram Shows the exchange of information between system entities at some high level of abstraction. Information flows can be useful to describe information flow through a system by representing aspects of models that are not fully specified or with less detail. information flow, information item, agent, class. Activity diagram shows the sequence and conditions for coordinating lower-level behaviors rather than the classification that owns those behaviors. These are often referred to as the control flow model and the object flow model. activity, partition, action, object, control, edge operation. State machine diagrams are used to model discrete behavior through finite state transitions. In addition to representing the behavior of a part of the system, a state machine can also be used to represent the protocol used by a part of the system. These two types of state machines are called behavioral state machines and protocol state machines. Behavioral state machine diagram Shows the discrete behavior of a part of a designed system through finite state transitions. behavioral state, behavior transition. Protocol state machine diagram Shows the usage protocol or lifecycle of some classifier, e.g. which classifier operation can be invoked in each classifier state, according to specific conditions and satisfy some optional conditions after the classifier transitions to the target state. protocol state, protocol switch, pseudo-random. Interactive Diagram (interaction diagram) Interaction diagrams include several different types of diagrams: sequence diagrams, communication diagrams (called ollaboration diagrams in UML 1.x), timing diagrams, overview diagrams Interactive. Sequence diagrams The most common types of interaction diagrams focus on exchanging messages between object life cycles. Streams, implementation specifications, messages, association fragments, interactive usage, immutable state. Communication diagram (UML 1.x collaboration diagram) (communication diagram) Focuses on the interaction between networks; where the architecture of the internal structure and how it corresponds to the message being transmitted is central. The sequence of messages is given through a sequence numbering scheme. Streams, messages. Timing diagram Show interactions when the main purpose of the diagram is about time. The time graph focuses on changing conditions during and between life cycles along a linear time axis. Streams, timelines or states, cancel events, time constraints. interaction overview diagram Define interactions through a variation of the activity diagram in a way that promotes an overview of the control flow. Interaction overview diagrams focus on an overview of the control flow where the buttons are either interactive or used interactively. initial node, final node flow, last node of activity, decision node, merge node, fork node, join node, interaction, use interaction, duration constraint, time constraint . See also: What is March 8 – International Women’s Day


III. Application

UML is a modeling language that visualizes and builds software systems and business models as well as other non-software systems in an object-oriented manner. UML is a collection of best practices and procedures that have been successfully tested in a large and complex system model. UML is used to specify, build, and document the analysis and design of an object-oriented project. It is a language for writing blueprints for software.

References https://www.omg.org/spec/UML/2.5/About-UML/https://umlforum.com/uml-specifications/

Nguyen Thi Thu Trang