What is autophagy?Mechanism of autophagy in cellsBenefits of autophagyAutophagy and Intermittent FastingHow to increase autophagy
Overweight and obesity is a pain for many people around the world. Because not everyone is comfortable with an unattractive heavy body. For this reason, they have found all sorts of ways to lose weight. One of these ways is fasting. While not optimal, they provide very quick results and are believed to have benefits related to autophagy. So what exactly is autophagy? And what are their benefits?
What is Autophagy?
Autophagy is a cellular process where waste products that accumulate inside cells or in some cases whole cells are recycled into nutrients that can be used for growth, repair, and repair. repair and fuel.
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Benefits of autophagy
Through the content above, you must have understood the concept of autophagy. For now, let’s learn a little more about the effects of this process on the body. Autophagy not only keeps us healthy, but they also have many essential roles in the body. This is why this process occurs in every cell of the body. And once autophagy is damaged, you can develop a variety of diseases. For example, when scientists use drugs to turn off autophagy in mice, they can develop all sorts of health problems: Cancer, heart and liver dysfunction, growth retardation, anemia and obesity. Most studies on autophagy have been performed in isolated cells (in vitro) or animals. But at the present time, it is generally accepted that autophagy plays an important role in preventing autophagy. prevent disease and dysfunction in humans. This is why many people claim that autophagy can: Slow or even reverse aging, Protect against neurodegenerative diseases, reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease. Below we will discuss in more detail the effects of autophagy.
Autophagy and aging
The term “aging” refers to the gradual deterioration of physiological functions. This can manifest in many ways, including: slower recovery after exercise (gym), decreased insulin sensitivity… Impaired joint function and others. More importantly, aging also comes with an increased risk of many diseases from cancer to heart disease or dementia. Older cells usually contain a larger amount of cellular waste. Even in mice, worms and fruit flies, aging is associated with a decline in autophagy. Some people rely on this and say, anything related to aging (from wrinkles to fine lines). muscle weakness), can all be cured if you can increase autophagy. That may or may not be true, because at the moment we don’t have the studies to confirm these things. On the other hand, an evidence from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (USA) confirms that… Autophagy affects the aging process in humans. But at the moment, we have no reliable way to control this process. All the arguments for “better autophagy = less aging”…Reminiscent of the hype surrounding telomeres years ago. In case you didn’t know about it, scientists discovered that the lifespan of our cells is largely determined by… The finger-like structures at the end of the DNA are identified. called telomeres. Every time a cell is regenerated, the telomeres get a little shorter. This has given rise to the hypothesis that… We can slow down the aging process by limiting or reversing the shrinking of telomeres. And so a frenzy of telomere research began in the mid-1970s. Nearly five decades later, we have a better understanding of how telomeres function. But we still don’t have a reliable way to measure their length, prevent them from shortening, or increase their length. In other words, there’s still a lot of science we don’t understand right now. And one of these ambiguities is autophagy. In short, autophagy is associated with aging. And their decline can have negative effects. However, we do not have a reliable way to use this knowledge to significantly affect aging.
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Autophagy and neurodegenerative diseases
The term “neurodegenerative disease” includes any disease that involves a loss of structure or function of the nervous system, and especially the brain. Some of the most common examples include: Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. Scientists are still looking for the main factors that cause and contribute to these diseases. And one potential candidate has to do with the accumulation of misfolded proteins. Every structure in our body much of it is made of protein (from microscopic mitochondria to major muscle groups). And building them requires meticulous attention to detail. Most of the time, everything works almost flawlessly, making incredibly complex structures work exactly as intended. However, sometimes the body’s “protein machinery” makes mistakes and creates produce misfolded proteins that cannot function properly. In case you didn’t understand… Protein folding is a physical process through which a protein chain gains its natural 3-dimensional structure. And these structures often carry a biological function. Back to the main point, if we have too many misfolded proteins in the body, they can interfere with cell function and eventually cause disease. For example, scientists believe that the accumulation of misfolded proteins may be one of the main causes of Alzheimer’s disease. We don’t fully understand why this buildup occurs…And even less about how to treat or prevent them. However, a deficiency or impairment of autophagy may be a cause. Autophagy is involved in the modification and recycling of misfolded proteins. Thus, it seems correct to say that “aging-related autophagy decline” would result in more folded proteins. misfolded proteins in our bodies. And it’s even possible that at some point in our lives the accumulation of misfolded proteins may exceed our ability to destroy them. body. By cleaning up these misfolded proteins before they have a chance to cause problems, autophagy may help protect against neurodegenerative disease. Even so, until more is known about this relationship…And more importantly how to regulate them proactively and safely. There’s nothing we can do (other than live a healthy life) to increase nervous system recovery.
Autophagy and cancer
Cancer is a disease caused by the uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body. If these defective, cancerous cells are allowed to multiply unchecked… Then they can develop into a mass called a tumor. Over time, this can affect many different bodily functions and eventually cause death. We all have cancer cells in our bodies, but in most cases , our body can identify and destroy them before problems start. In many cases, these cancer cells are eliminated through autophagy. This is why scientists think autophagy can help protect against cancer in three ways. The first is to keep cells healthy and therefore less able to fight cancer. cancer in the first place. The second way is to destroy and recycle cancer cells. Keeping cells healthy Destroys and recycles cancer cells Reduces the impact of cancer cells on healthy cells The third way is to reduce the impact of cancer cells on healthy cells. neighboring healthy cells. To back this up, several animal and test-tube studies show that… When genes that increase autophagy are destroyed, tumor growth increases. A review study on autophagy and cancer, conducted by scientists at… Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital (Korea) also came to almost the same conclusion. This research indicates that, one of the main ways the body…kills cancer cells before they can reproduce and spread is through autophagy. This is good news. But unfortunately, just like aging and neurodegenerative disease… We still don’t have a reliable way to manipulate autophagy to make them better protect against cancer. Again, we can only focus on a healthy life through proper diet, nutrition… Actively exercising, ensuring sleep and limiting stress. Apart from the above methods, there is currently no reliable way to promote or enhance autophagy.
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Autophagy and Intermittent Fasting
How to increase autophagy
With what we currently know, eating well, being physically active, and staying in shape are enough to get all the benefits of autophagy without the need for intermittent fasting. For example, studies conducted by scientists at the University of Virginia (USA), the University of Texas (USA) and the University of Padova (Italy) have shown that , exercise can… Increase the expression of genes responsible for autophagy. On the other hand, other studies carried out by scientists at the Dream Center Sleep Biopotentials (Biopotentials Sleep Center – USA) and… University of Michigan Medical Center (USA) have found that autophagy is related to the sleep cycle. So, maintaining a good sleep regimen can help with healthy autophagy levels.