Opioid analgesics are a group of natural and synthetic substances with properties similar to that of morphine acting on receptors opioid body.[1][2] Opioids include opiates (opiates), drugs derived from opiates, including morphine [3]. Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone, and fentanyl; antagonists such as naloxone and endogenous peptides such as endorphins.[4]

Opioid drugs are mainly used to relieve pain, including anesthesia, they are also used to relieve coughs, and to combat diarrhea[5]

The Side effects of opiates can include itching, drowsiness, nausea, respiratory distress, constipation, and euphoria. Continuous use is dependent, requires increased doses and leads to a withdrawal syndrome upon abrupt discontinuation. Feelings of euphoria attract recreational drug use, and frequent recreational use of opioids leads to addiction. Accidents caused by overdose or concurrent use with other analgesics often result in death due to respiratory failure.

Table of Contents

1 Common Drugs 1.1 Morphine 1.2 Pethidine 1.3 Codeine 2 Comments

Commonly used drugs < edit | edit source>

Morphin and pethidine are opioid analgesics effective for moderate to severe pain, especially visceral pain. Response to medication varies widely among patients. Codeine, a milder analgesic, is suitable for mild to moderate pain.[6]

Morphin < edit | edit source>

Main article: Morphine

Morphin is most valuable for severe pain.

In addition to reducing pain, morphine also makes patients feel happy and optimistic, lose hunger, stop sadness and fear; Repeated use can lead to addiction and addiction.

At usual doses, common undesirable effects include nausea, vomiting, constipation and drowsiness; High doses cause respiratory depression and hypotension.

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Pethidin < edit | edit source code>

Pethidine (International name: Pethidine hydrochloride) provides quick but short pain relief, less effective than morphine, but less constipating than morphine. Pethidine is used to relieve pain in cases of moderate to severe pain.

The drug is also used by injection to induce pre-anesthesia and to support anesthesia.

A neurotoxic metabolite of pethidine, norpethidine, accumulates during repeated administration of pethidine and may cause central nervous system irritation including myoclonic twitching and convulsions. jerk. These side effects, together with the short analgesic effect, make pethidine unsuitable for the treatment of severe, prolonged pain.[6]

Codein < edit | edit source code>

Codeine is much weaker than morphine and is also less likely to cause many side effects in normal doses, including addiction. It is effective for mild to moderate pain, but long-term use can cause constipation.

Codeine has a cough suppressant effect due to its direct effect on the cough center in the medulla oblongata; Codeine dries respiratory secretions and increases the viscosity of bronchial secretions. Codeine is a cough suppressant in case of a dry cough that makes it difficult to sleep.

Codein causes a decrease in intestinal motility, so it is a very good drug in the treatment of diarrhea caused by diabetic neuropathy. Not indicated for acute diarrhea and diarrhea due to infection.[7]

Comment < edit | edit source>

^ Hemmings, Hugh C.; Egan, Talmage D. (2013). Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia: Foundations and Clinical Application: Expert Consult – Online and Print (in English). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 253. ISBN 1437716792. Opiate is the older term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium. Opioid, a more modern term, is used to designate all substances, both natural and synthetic, that bind to opioid receptors including antagonists. ^ Benzon, Honorio; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Fishman, Scott E.; Liu, Spencer; Cohen, Steven P. (2011).

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Essentials of Pain Medicine (in English). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 85. ISBN 1437735932. ^ Offermanns, Stefan (2008). Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology (in English) 1 (2nd edition). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 903. ISBN 9783540389163. In the strict sense, opiates are drugs derived from opium and include the natural products morphine, codeine, thebaine and many semi-synthetic congeners derived from them. In the wider sense, opiates are morphine-like drugs with non peptidic structures. The older term opiates is now more and more replaced by the term opioids which applies to any substance, whether endogenous or synthetic, peptidic or non-peptidic, that produces morphine-like effects through action on opioid receptors. ^ Freye, Enno (2008). “Part II. Mechanism of action of opioids and clinical effects”. Opioids in Medicine: A Comprehensive Review on the Mode of Action and the Use of Analgesics in Different Clinical Pain States (bằng tiếng Anh). Springer Science & Business Media. tr. 85. ISBN 9781402059476. Opiate is a specific term that is used to describe drugs (natural and semi-synthetic) derived from the juice of the opium poppy. For example morphine is an opiate but methadone (a completely synthetic drug) is not. Opioid is a general term that includes naturally occurring, semi-synthetic, and synthetic drugs, which produce their effects by combining with opioid receptors and are competitively antagonized by nalaxone. In this context the term opioid refers to opioid agonists, opioid antagonists, opioid peptides, and opioid receptors. ^ Stromgaard, Kristian; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl; Madsen, Ulf (2009). Textbook of Drug Design and Discovery, Fourth Edition (bằng tiếng Anh). CRC Press. ISBN 9781439882405. ^ a ă Thuốc giảm đau nhóm opioid, nidqc ^ Codein phosphat, dieutri

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